Article

FoxO4 inhibits NF-kappaB and protects mice against colonic injury and inflammation.

Departmentsof Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390-9148, USA.
Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 13.93). 07/2009; 137(4):1403-14. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2009.06.049
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT FoxO4 is a member of the forkhead box transcription factor O (FoxO) subfamily. FoxO proteins are involved in diverse biological processes. In this study, we examine the role of FoxO4 in intestinal mucosal immunity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Foxo4-null mice were subjected to trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) treatment. Microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used to identify the cytokine transcripts that were altered by Foxo4 deletion. The effects of Foxo4 deficiency on the intestinal epithelial permeability and levels of tight junction proteins were examined by permeable fluorescent dye and Western blot. The molecular and cellular mechanisms by which FoxO4 regulates the mucosal immunity were explored through immunologic and biochemical analyses. The expression level of FoxO4 in intestinal epithelial cells of patients with IBD was examined with immunohistochemistry.
Foxo4-null mice were more susceptible to TNBS injury-induced colitis. The chemokine CCL5 is significantly up-regulated in the colonic epithelial cells of Foxo4-null mice, with increased recruitment of CD4(+) intraepithelial T cells and up-regulation of cytokines interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the colon. Foxo4 deficiency also resulted in an increase in intestinal epithelial permeability and down-regulation of the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and claudin-1. Mechanistically, FoxO4 inhibited the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), and Foxo4 deficiency is associated with increased NF-kappaB activity in vivo. FoxO4 transcription is transiently repressed in response to TNBS treatment and in patients with IBD.
These results indicate that FoxO4 is an endogenous inhibitor of NF-kappaB and identify a novel function of FoxO4 in the regulation of NF-kappaB-mediated mucosal immunity.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Yan Peng, Jan 13, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
121 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Maternal obesity is associated with placental lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation, where MAPK activity may play a central role. Accordingly, we have previously shown that placenta from obese women have increased activation of MAPK-JNK. Here, we performed RNA-sequencing on term placenta from twenty-two subjects who were dichotomized based on pre-pregnancy BMI into lean (BMI 19- 24 kg/m2; n = 12) and obese groups (BMI, 32-43 kg/m2; n = 12). RNA-seq revealed 288 genes to be significantly different in placenta from obese women by >1.4-fold. GO analysis identified genes related to lipid metabolism, angiogenesis, hormone activity, and cytokine activity to be altered in placenta from obese women. Indicative of a lipotoxic environment, increased placental lipid and CIDEA protein were associated with decreased AMPK and increased activation of NF-κB(p65) in placenta from obese women. Furthermore, we observed a 25% decrease in total antioxidant capacity and increased nuclear FOXO4 localization in placenta from obese women that was significantly associated with JNK activation, suggesting that maternal obesity may also be associated with increased oxidative stress in placenta. Maternal obesity was also associated with decreased HIF-1α protein expression, suggesting a potential link between increased inflammation/oxidative stress and decreased angiogenic factors. Together, these findings indicate that maternal obesity leads to a lipotoxic placental environment that is associated with decreased regulators of angiogenesis and increased markers of inflammation and oxidative stress.
    Placenta 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.placenta.2014.01.003 · 3.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The intestinal epithelial monolayer constitutes a physical and functional barrier between the organism and the external environment. It regulates nutrients absorption, water and ion fluxes, and represents the first defensive barrier against toxins and enteric pathogens. Epithelial cells are linked together at the apical junctional complex by tight junctions that reduce the extracellular space and the passage of charge entities while forming a physical barrier to lipophilic molecules. Cultured intestinal epithelial cells have been extensively used to study intestinal absorption of newly synthesized drugs and the regulation of tight junctions structure and function. In vitro mild irritants, proinflammatory cytokines, toxins and pathogens, and adverse environmental conditions open tight junctions and increase paracellular permeability, an effect often accompanied by immune activation of the enterocytes. Conversely, inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines, exposure to growth factors and probiotics, among others, exert a protective effect. Impaired barrier function results from activation of signalling pathways that lead to alteration of junctional proteins expression and/or distribution. In vivo, intestinal barrier dysfunction is associated with various intestinal and non-intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and diarrhoeal infection. This review will describe the current knowledge of the mechanisms regulating tight junctions and intestinal permeability, how these findings have lead to a better understanding of barrier alteration in human intestinal disorders, and what the emerging therapies to treat these pathologies are.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 01/2011; 18(3):398-426. DOI:10.2174/092986711794839179 · 3.72 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with alterations in numerous physiological systems, including the stress and immune systems. We have previously shown that PAE increases the course and severity of arthritis in an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) model. While the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully known, changes in neural gene expression are emerging as important factors in the etiology of PAE effects. As the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) play key roles in neuroimmune function, PAE-induced alterations to their transcriptome may underlie abnormal steady-state functions and responses to immune challenge. This study examined brains from adult PAE and control females from our recent AA study to determine whether PAE causes long-term alterations in gene expression and whether these mediate the altered severity and course of arthritis in PAE females.Methods Adult females from PAE, pair-fed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) groups were injected with either saline or complete Freund's adjuvant. Animals were terminated at the peak of inflammation or during resolution (Days 16 and 39 postinjection, respectively); cohorts of saline-injected PAE, PF, and C females were terminated in parallel. Gene expression was analyzed in the PFC and HPC using whole-genome mRNA expression microarrays.ResultsSignificant changes in gene expression in both the PFC and HPC were found in PAE compared to controls in response to ethanol exposure alone (saline-injected females), including genes involved in neurodevelopment, apoptosis, and energy metabolism. Moreover, in response to inflammation (adjuvant-injected females), PAE animals showed unique expression patterns, while failing to exhibit the activation of genes and regulators involved in the immune response observed in control and pair-fed animals.Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that PAE affects neuroimmune function at the level of gene expression, demonstrating long-term effects of PAE on the central nervous system response under steady-state conditions and following an inflammatory insult.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 02/2015; 39(2). DOI:10.1111/acer.12622 · 3.31 Impact Factor

Similar Publications