Article

Fetal lower urinary tract obstruction.

General Surgery, The Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
Clinics in perinatology (Impact Factor: 2.13). 07/2009; 36(2):377-90, x. DOI: 10.1016/j.clp.2009.03.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The authors present an overview of the prenatal diagnosis, evaluation, contemporary intervention, and antenatal management of lower urinary tract obstruction. They review early experimental models that confirmed the relation between urinary tract obstruction and renal fibrocystic dysplasia and that early in utero relief of the obstruction could prevent irreversible renal injury. Subsequent studies of the electrolyte and protein concentrations in fetal urine from human cases established prognostic threshold values and helped to develop an algorithm to select candidates for antenatal therapy. Although shunting has improved survival, long-term morbidities remain a significant challenge.

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    ABSTRACT: Since the first human fetal surgery was reported in 1965, several different fetal surgical procedures have been developed and perfected, resulting in significantly improved outcomes for many fetuses. The currently accepted list of fetal conditions for which antenatal surgery is considered include lower urinary tract obstruction, twin-twin transfusion syndrome, myelomeningocele, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, neck masses occluding the trachea, and tumors such as congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation or sacrococcygeal teratoma when associated with development of fetal hydrops. Until recently, it has been difficult to determine the true benefits of several fetal surgeries because outcomes were reported as uncontrolled case series. However, several prospective randomized trials have been attempted and others are ongoing, supporting a more evidence-based approach to antenatal intervention. Problems that have yet to be completely overcome include the inability to identify ideal fetal candidates for antenatal intervention, to determine the optimal timing of intervention, and to prevent preterm birth after fetal surgery. Confronting a fetal abnormality raises unique and complex issues for the family. For this reason, in addition to a maternal-fetal medicine specialist experienced in prenatal diagnosis, a pediatric surgeon, an experienced operating room team including a knowledgeable anesthesiologist, and a neonatologist, the family considering fetal surgery should have access to psychosocial support and a bioethicist.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology 09/2014; 124(4). DOI:10.1097/AOG.0000000000000476 · 4.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In utero fetal surgery interventions are currently considered in selected cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia, cystic pulmonary abnormalities, amniotic band sequence, selected congenital heart abnormalities, myelomeningocele, sacrococcygeal teratoma, obstructive uropathy, and complications of twin pregnancy. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated an advantage for open fetal surgery of myelomeningocele and for fetoscopic selective laser coagulation of placental vessels in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. The evidence for other fetal surgery interventions, such as tracheal occlusion in congenital diaphragmatic hernia, excision of lung lesions, fetal balloon cardiac valvuloplasty, and vesicoamniotic shunting for obstructive uropathy, is more limited. Conditions amenable to intrauterine surgical treatment are rare; the mother may consider termination of pregnancy as an option for many of them; treatment can be lifesaving but in itself carries risks to both the infant (preterm premature rupture of the membranes, preterm delivery) and the mother. This makes conducting prospective or randomized trials difficult and explains the relative lack of good-quality evidence in this field. Moreover, there is scanty information on long-term outcomes. It is recommended that fetal surgery procedures be performed in centers with extensive facilities and expertise. The aims of this review were to describe the main fetal surgery procedures and their evidence-based results and to provide generalist obstetricians with an overview of current indications for fetal surgery.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate the efficacy of fetal intervention using fetal cystoscopy or vesicoamniotic shunting in the treatment of severe lower urinary obstruction (LUTO).MethodsA cohort of 111 fetuses with severe LUTO attending two centers between January 1990 and August 2013 were included retrospectively. Fetuses were categorized into three groups based on the method of intervention: (1) fetal cystoscopy, (2) vesicoamniotic shunting or (3) no intervention. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine the probability of survival and normal renal function until 6 months of age by comparing fetal cystoscopy and vesicoamniotic shunting to no fetal intervention.ResultsOf the 111 fetuses with severe LUTO that were included in the analysis, fetal cystoscopy was performed in 34, vesicoamniotic shunting was performed in 16 and there was no fetal intervention in 61. Gestational age at diagnosis, method of fetal intervention and cause of bladder obstruction were associated with prognosis. In multivariate analysis and after adjustment for potential confounders (considering all causes of LUTO) the overall probability of survival was significantly higher with fetal cystoscopy and vesicoamniotic shunting when compared to no intervention (adjusted relative risk (ARR), 1.86 (95% CI, 1.01-3.42; P = 0.048) and ARR, 1.73 (95% CI, 1.01-3.08; P = 0.04) respectively). A clear trend for normal renal function was present in the fetal cystoscopy group (ARR, 1.73 (95% CI, 0.97-3.08; P = 0.06)) but was not observed in the vesicoamniotic shunt group (ARR, 1.16 (95% CI, 0.86-1.55; P = 0.33)). In cases in which there was a postnatal diagnosis of posterior urethral valves, fetal cystoscopy was effective in improving both the 6-month survival rate and renal function (ARR, 4.10 (95% CI, 1.75-9.62; P < 0.01) and 2.66 (95% CI, 1.25-5.70; P = 0.01) respectively) while vesicoamniotic shunting was associated only with an improvement in the 6-month survival rate (ARR, 3.76 (95% CI, 1.42-9.97; P < 0.01)) with no effect on renal function (ARR, 1.03 (95% CI, 0.49-2.17, P = 0.93)).Conclusion Fetal cystoscopy and vesicoamniotic shunting improve the 6-month survival rate in cases of severe LUTO. However, only fetal cystoscopy may prevent impairment of renal function in fetuses with posterior urethral valves. Our data support the idea of performing a subsequent randomized controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of fetal cystoscopy vs vesicoamniotic shunting for severe fetal LUTO.
    Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 03/2015; 45(4). DOI:10.1002/uog.14652 · 3.14 Impact Factor

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