Risk of Lymphoma Associated With Combination Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor and Immunomodulator Therapy for the Treatment of Crohn's Disease: A Meta-Analysis

Dartmouth-Hitchcock IBD Center and Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, USA.
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association (Impact Factor: 7.9). 08/2009; 7(8):874-81. DOI: 10.1016/j.cgh.2009.01.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy can effectively treat Crohn's disease (CD), there is concern that it might increase the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). A meta-analysis was performed to determine the rate of NHL in adult CD patients who have received anti-TNF therapy and to compare this rate with that of a population-based registry and a population of CD patients treated with immunomodulators.
MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Collaboration, and Web of Science were searched. Inclusion criteria included randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, or case series reporting on anti-TNF therapy in adult CD patients. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated by comparing the pooled rate of NHL with the expected rate of NHL derived from the Surveillance Epidemiology & End Results (SEER) database and a meta-analysis of CD patients treated with immunomodulators.
Twenty-six studies involving 8905 patients and 21,178 patient-years of follow-up were included. Among anti-TNF treated subjects, 13 cases of NHL were reported (6.1 per 10,000 patient-years). The majority of these patients had previous immunomodulator exposure. Compared with the expected rate of NHL in the SEER database (1.9 per 10,000 patient-years), anti-TNF treated subjects had a significantly elevated risk (SIR, 3.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-6.9). When compared with the NHL rate in CD patients treated with immunomodulators alone (4 per 10,000 patient-years), the SIR was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 0.5-7.1).
The use of anti-TNF agents with immunomodulators is associated with an increased risk of NHL in adult CD patients, but the absolute rate of these events remains low and should be weighed against the substantial benefits associated with treatment.

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    • "A 2008 meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials by Peyrin-Biroulet et al. reported that the treatment of CD by anti-TNF biologics does not increase the risk for cancer [120]. However, a more recent meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials by Siegel et al. found that treatment of CD with anti-TNF biologics in combination with immunomodulators is associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma [123]. Analysis of data from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) showed that treatment with a combination of thiopurines and TNF inhibitors, but not with TNF inhibitors alone is associated with increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in IBD patients [133]. "
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