Sub-typing of renal cell tumours; contribution of ancillary techniques.

Department of Histopathology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Chandigarh, India.
Diagnostic Pathology (Impact Factor: 2.41). 07/2009; 4:21. DOI: 10.1186/1746-1596-4-21
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Adult renal epithelial neoplasms are a heterogeneous group with varying prognosis and outcome requiring sub-classification.
Cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in a 10 years period were analyzed with regard to the clinical features and histology. Sections were reviewed by four pathologists and the discordant cases were resolved with the help of Hale's colloidal iron stain, vimentin, CK 7, and vinculin immunostains and electron microscopy.
Amongst the total of 278 cases, clear cell renal cell carcinoma was the commonest tumor with 74.8% cases, followed by papillary RCC 12.2%, chromophobe RCC 7.9%, oncocytoma 1.8%, and one case of collecting duct RCC. Eight cases were of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma. In 28/278 cases, diagnoses varied amongst the four pathologists and the discordance was resolved by Hale's colloidal iron stain, CK7 immunostain and electron microscopy. Vimentin and vinculin did not contribute much in differentiating subtypes of renal cell carcinomas. Relative incidence of sub-types of RCCs was compared with other series.
To accurately subclassify renal cell carcinomas, simple ancillary techniques would possibly resolve all difficult cases. The relative incidence of sub-types of renal cell carcinoma is relatively consistent the world over. However, in India, RCCs afflict the patients two decades earlier.

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    ABSTRACT: Renal tumor is the 13th most common malignancy in the world and more than 90% of renal tumors are renal cell carcinomas. As there is no data available on renal cell carcinoma in Nepal, hence this study was undertaken to analyze the patterns of renal cell carcinoma in patients with renal mass at a tertiary level hospital in Nepal. To analyze the patterns of renal cell carcinoma in patients with renal mass at a tertiary level hospital in Nepal. The case records of 50 consecutive patients with renal cell carcinoma presenting at the Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu from July 2006 to June 2011 were retrospectively evaluated for presenting symptoms, physical finding, investigation and histopathology report. Out of 50 patients, 64% were male and 36% were female. The age ranged between 11 to 78 years (mean ± SD: 55 ± 15 years). Fifty four percent of patients were smokers. Incidentally tumor was detected in 40% cases by ultrasonography and the typical triad was present in only 4%. The tumor was occupying upper pole in 40% of cases. The tumor size ranged from 3 to 15 cm (mean ± SD: 7.3 ± 2.9 cm). Histopathologically, 76% of the patient had organ confined renal cell carcinoma (T1- 2 N0 M0). Clear cell was the most common type seen in 86%. Fuhrman nuclear grade 2 was found in 50%. Many of the renal cell carcinoma are detected incidentally, at an early stage and are of clear cell subtype.
    Kathmandu University Medical Journal 07/2011; 9(35):185-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is characterized by its resistance to radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. On the other hand, it is an immunogenic tumor - it is able to stimulate antitumor responses. A prognostic significance of HLA-G expression by neoplastic cells in RCC is not well characterized; significance HLA-E expression in RCC is not characterized at all. In our study, we evaluated the expression of HLA-G and HLA-E specific mRNA transcripts produced by neoplastic cells in 38 cases of RCC and in 10 samples of normal kidney parenchyma. The results were statistically correlated with various clinico-pathological parameters. We confirmed that HLA-G is downregulated in normal kidney tissue; if it is up-regulated in RCC, then it is connected to worse prognosis. On the other hand, HLA-E mRNA transcripts were present in both normal kidney tissue and RCC and their increasing concentrations counterintuitively carried better prognosis, more favorable pT stage and lower nuclear Fuhrmann's grade. Considering the fact that there is known aberrant activation of HLA-G and HLA-E expression by interferons, identification of HLA-G and HLA-E status could contribute to better selection of RCC patients who could possibly benefit from more tailored neoadjuvant biological/immunological therapy. Thus, these molecules could represent useful prognostic biomarkers in RCC, and the expression of both these molecules in RCC deserves further study. THE VIRTUAL: Slide(s) for this article can be found here:
    Diagnostic Pathology 05/2012; 7:58. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological spectrum of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (CRCC) and diagnostic utility of a panel of three immunohistochemical stains. All cases of CRCC reported between 2002 and 2012 in the Section of Histopathology, Aga Khan University Hospital, were retrieved. A total of 45 cases were identified. Slides were reviewed and immunohistochemical stains (CK7, CD117, and vimentin) were performed. Ages ranged from 18 to 90years (mean, 48.5years). Male-to-female ratio was 0.8:1. The tumor was located in the left kidney in 24 patients and the right kidney in 20 patients. The tumor size ranged from 3.5 to 22cm (mean 10cm). Histologically, 4 were classic, 22 were eosinophilic, 16 were mixed, and 3 were sarcomatoid type. Morphologic patterns included broad alveolar, solid, nested, tubular, tubulocystic, trabecular, papillary, and microglandular. Binucleation and perinuclear halos were seen in all cases. Nuclear grooves and pseudoinclusions were seen in 17 and 6 cases, respectively. Multinucleated cells were seen in 19 cases. Mitoses ranged from 1 to 11/10 HPFs (mean 3/10 HPFs). Hyalinized stroma was seen in 38 cases and calcification in 26 cases. Necrosis was seen in 18 cases. Palisading of smaller cells around the broad alveolar pattern was noted in 5 cases. The Furhman's nuclear grade was I (11), II (26), III (5), and IV (3). Hale's colloidal iron was positive in all cases. Immunohistochemical stain CK7 and CD117 were positive in 100% and 95.5% of cases respectively. Vimentin was negative in all cases, except in the sarcomatoid areas of 3 cases. In conclusion, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma has certain unique morphological features and immunohistochemical profile which help to distinguish it from conventional renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma. We identified nuclear pseudoinclusions, microglandular pattern and palisading of smaller cells, which have not been reported earlier.
    Annals of diagnostic pathology 10/2013; · 1.11 Impact Factor

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Dinesh Pradhan