Postoperative displacement of hydroxyapatite spacers implanted during double-door laminoplasty.
ABSTRACT Double-door laminoplasty using hydroxyapatite (HA) spacers has been widely performed for compressive cervical myelopathy and has provided good neurological outcome. Although HA spacers are used for preventing reclosure of the opened laminae, they are often displaced or dislocated from their original position. The authors investigated the incidence and patterns of postoperative HA spacer displacement to determine the reasons for this unfavorable event.
Eighty-six patients with compressive myelopathy underwent double-door laminoplasty in which a total of 278 HA spacers were used. The displacement of HA spacers and opened laminae were assessed using postoperative lateral radiographs and CT scans.
Postoperative dorsal migration > 2 mm was found in 116 (42%) of 278 implanted HA spacers. In addition, 33 (38%) of 86 HA spacers rotated > 10 degrees and 29 (34%) of the 86 opened laminae tilted > 10 degrees. Moreover, deformation of the newly formed spinal canal was observed in 51 (59%) of 86 cases, and bone fusion between the HA spacer and spinous process was achieved in only 15 (8.7%) of 172 cases. Neurological worsening and neck pain, however, were not associated with displacement of HA spacers or deformation of the spinal canal.
In double-door laminoplasty, postoperative displacement of the HA spacer with deformation of the enlarged spinal canal occurred frequently. Hydroxyapatite spacers tend to become displaced after surgery. Placing the HA spacer at the base of the spinous process close to the dura mater may prevent postoperative displacement.
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ABSTRACT: Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were prepared using Ca4(PO4)2O (TeCP) and modified CaHPO4 (DCPA) to evaluate the effects of the powder properties for DCPA particles on the setting time and formability of the resulting CPCs. Two types of modified DCPA were prepared by milling commercially available DCPA with ethanol (to produce E-DCPA) or distilled water (to produce W-DCPA). The E-DCPA samples consisted of well-dispersed, fine primary particles, while the W-DCPA samples contained agglomerated particles, and had a smaller specific surface area. The mean particle size decreased with increased milling time in both cases. The raw CPC powders prepared using W-DCPA had a higher packing density than those prepared using E-DCPA, regardless of the mean particle size. The setting time of the CPC paste after mixing with distilled water decreased with decreases in the mean particle size and specific surface area, for both types of DCPA. The CPCs prepared using W-DCPA showed larger plasticity values compared with those prepared using E-DCPA, which contributed to the superior formability of the W-DCPA samples. The CPCs prepared using W-DCPA showed a short setting time and large plasticity values, despite the fact that only a small amount of liquid was used for the mixing of the raw CPC powders (a liquid-to-powder ratio of 0.25 g g(-1) was used). It is likely that the higher packing density of the raw CPC powders prepared using W-DCPA was responsible for the higher performance of the resulting CPCs.Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 04/2014; · 2.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Object Modified cervical laminoplasty techniques have been developed to reduce postoperative axial neck pain and preserve function in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). However, the previous studies demonstrating satisfactory surgical outcomes had a retrospective design. Here, the authors aimed to prospectively evaluate the 2-year outcomes of a modified cervical laminoplasty technique for CSM that preserves the paravertebral muscles. Methods Outcomes were analyzed for 40 patients (22 men and 18 women; mean age, 66.6 years; age range 44-92 years) with CSM who underwent C4-6 laminoplasty with C-3 and C-7 partial laminectomies or C-3 total and C-7 partial laminectomies and received hydroxyapatite spacers. Neurological, pain severity, and spinal radiographic evaluations were performed preoperatively and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postoperatively. Plain radiography and MRI of the cervical spine were performed to evaluate the range of motion (ROM), sagittal alignment, and cross-sectional areas of the deep extensor muscles. The extent of bone-spacer bonding and bony union at the gutter was assessed by CT. Results The mean preoperative Japanese Orthopaedic Association CSM score was 10.2, but it increased to 14.4 by 24 months after surgery. Eleven patients had axial neck pain preoperatively, but only 3 reported mild pain at 24 months, and in all 3 cases the pain was mild. The mean angle of lordosis was 11.7° preoperatively and 12.0° 2 years postoperatively. Although the ROM at the C2-7 levels was significantly reduced 3 months postoperatively, an increasing trend was observed up to 12 months, and 86% of the preoperative ROM was achieved by 2 years postoperatively. The mean paravertebral muscle cross-sectional areas were 833 ± 215 mm(2) preoperatively and 763 ± 197 mm(2) 24 months postoperatively, but the difference was not statistically significant. The rates of bone-spacer bonding and bony union at the gutter were low during the early stages but increased to 90% and 93%, respectively, by 2 years after surgery. Conclusions The modified laminoplasty technique used in this study ensured very good neurological status and ROM after 2 years and was associated with low incidences of axial neck pain and serious complications. This simple and easy operative method could benefit future laminoplasty protocols.Journal of neurosurgery. Spine 03/2013; · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Object There are little data on the effects of plated, or plate-only, open-door laminoplasty on cervical range of motion (ROM), neck pain, and clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to compare ROM after a plated laminoplasty in patients with ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) versus those with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and to correlate ROM with postoperative neck pain and neurological outcomes. Methods The authors retrospectively compared patients with a diagnosis of cervical stenosis due to either OPLL or CSM who had been treated with plated laminoplasty in the period from 2007 to 2012 at the University of California, San Francisco. Clinical outcomes were measured using the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale and neck visual analog scale (VAS). Radiographic outcomes included assessment of changes in the C2-7 Cobb angle at flexion and extension, ROM at C2-7, and ROM of proximal and distal segments adjacent to the plated lamina. Results Sixty patients (40 men and 20 women) with an average age of 63.1 ± 10.9 years were included in the study. Forty-one patients had degenerative CSM and 19 patients had OPLL. The mean follow-up period was 20.9 ± 13.1 months. The mean mJOA score significantly improved in both the CSM and the OPLL groups (12.8 to 14.5, p < 0.01; and 13.2 to 14.2, respectively; p = 0.04). In the CSM group, the mean VAS neck score significantly improved from 4.2 to 2.6 after surgery (p = 0.01), but this improvement did not reach the minimum clinically important difference (MCID). Neither was there significant improvement in the VAS neck score in the OPLL group (3.6 to 3.1, p = 0.17). In the CSM group, ROM at C2-7 significantly decreased from 32.7° before surgery to 24.4° after surgery (p < 0.01). In the OPLL group, ROM at C2-7 significantly decreased from 34.4° to 20.8° (p < 0.01). In the CSM group, the change in the VAS neck score significantly correlated with the change in the flexion angle (r = - 0.31) and the extension angle (r = - 0.37); however, it did not correlate with the change in ROM at C2-7 (r = - 0.1). In the OPLL group, the change in the VAS neck score did not correlate with the change in the flexion angle (r = 0.03), the extension angle (r = - 0.17), or the ROM at C2-7 (r = - 0.28). The OPLL group had a significantly greater loss of ROM after surgery than did the CSM group (p = 0.04). There was no significant correlation between the change in ROM and the mJOA score in either group. Conclusions Plated laminoplasty in patients with either OPLL or CSM decreases cervical ROM, especially in the extension angle. Among patients who have undergone laminoplasty, those with OPLL lose more ROM than do those with CSM. No correlation was observed between neck pain and ROM in either group. Neither group had a change in neck pain that reached the MCID following laminoplasty. Both groups improved in neurological function and outcomes.Neurosurgical FOCUS 07/2013; 35(1):E9. · 2.14 Impact Factor