Postoperative displacement of hydroxyapatite spacers implanted during double-door laminoplasty.

Department of Orthopedics, National Hospital Organization Osaka Minami Medical Center, Kawachinagano, Osaka Japan.
Journal of Neurosurgery Spine (Impact Factor: 1.98). 06/2009; 10(6):551-6. DOI:10.3171/2009.2.17680
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Double-door laminoplasty using hydroxyapatite (HA) spacers has been widely performed for compressive cervical myelopathy and has provided good neurological outcome. Although HA spacers are used for preventing reclosure of the opened laminae, they are often displaced or dislocated from their original position. The authors investigated the incidence and patterns of postoperative HA spacer displacement to determine the reasons for this unfavorable event.
Eighty-six patients with compressive myelopathy underwent double-door laminoplasty in which a total of 278 HA spacers were used. The displacement of HA spacers and opened laminae were assessed using postoperative lateral radiographs and CT scans.
Postoperative dorsal migration > 2 mm was found in 116 (42%) of 278 implanted HA spacers. In addition, 33 (38%) of 86 HA spacers rotated > 10 degrees and 29 (34%) of the 86 opened laminae tilted > 10 degrees. Moreover, deformation of the newly formed spinal canal was observed in 51 (59%) of 86 cases, and bone fusion between the HA spacer and spinous process was achieved in only 15 (8.7%) of 172 cases. Neurological worsening and neck pain, however, were not associated with displacement of HA spacers or deformation of the spinal canal.
In double-door laminoplasty, postoperative displacement of the HA spacer with deformation of the enlarged spinal canal occurred frequently. Hydroxyapatite spacers tend to become displaced after surgery. Placing the HA spacer at the base of the spinous process close to the dura mater may prevent postoperative displacement.

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    ABSTRACT: Object There are little data on the effects of plated, or plate-only, open-door laminoplasty on cervical range of motion (ROM), neck pain, and clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to compare ROM after a plated laminoplasty in patients with ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) versus those with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and to correlate ROM with postoperative neck pain and neurological outcomes. Methods The authors retrospectively compared patients with a diagnosis of cervical stenosis due to either OPLL or CSM who had been treated with plated laminoplasty in the period from 2007 to 2012 at the University of California, San Francisco. Clinical outcomes were measured using the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale and neck visual analog scale (VAS). Radiographic outcomes included assessment of changes in the C2-7 Cobb angle at flexion and extension, ROM at C2-7, and ROM of proximal and distal segments adjacent to the plated lamina. Results Sixty patients (40 men and 20 women) with an average age of 63.1 ± 10.9 years were included in the study. Forty-one patients had degenerative CSM and 19 patients had OPLL. The mean follow-up period was 20.9 ± 13.1 months. The mean mJOA score significantly improved in both the CSM and the OPLL groups (12.8 to 14.5, p < 0.01; and 13.2 to 14.2, respectively; p = 0.04). In the CSM group, the mean VAS neck score significantly improved from 4.2 to 2.6 after surgery (p = 0.01), but this improvement did not reach the minimum clinically important difference (MCID). Neither was there significant improvement in the VAS neck score in the OPLL group (3.6 to 3.1, p = 0.17). In the CSM group, ROM at C2-7 significantly decreased from 32.7° before surgery to 24.4° after surgery (p < 0.01). In the OPLL group, ROM at C2-7 significantly decreased from 34.4° to 20.8° (p < 0.01). In the CSM group, the change in the VAS neck score significantly correlated with the change in the flexion angle (r = - 0.31) and the extension angle (r = - 0.37); however, it did not correlate with the change in ROM at C2-7 (r = - 0.1). In the OPLL group, the change in the VAS neck score did not correlate with the change in the flexion angle (r = 0.03), the extension angle (r = - 0.17), or the ROM at C2-7 (r = - 0.28). The OPLL group had a significantly greater loss of ROM after surgery than did the CSM group (p = 0.04). There was no significant correlation between the change in ROM and the mJOA score in either group. Conclusions Plated laminoplasty in patients with either OPLL or CSM decreases cervical ROM, especially in the extension angle. Among patients who have undergone laminoplasty, those with OPLL lose more ROM than do those with CSM. No correlation was observed between neck pain and ROM in either group. Neither group had a change in neck pain that reached the MCID following laminoplasty. Both groups improved in neurological function and outcomes.
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    ABSTRACT: No previous studies have reported 10-year follow-up results for double-door laminoplasty using hydroxyapatite (HA) spacers. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore the long-term results of double-door laminoplasty using HA spacers and to determine if non-union or breakage of HA spacers is related to restenosis of the enlarged cervical canal. The study group consisted of 68 patients with a minimum of 10 years of follow-up after double-door laminoplasty using HA spacers. The average postoperative Japanese Orthopaedic Association score improved significantly after surgery and was maintained until the final follow-up. The average range of motion decreased by 42.6% in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and 65.8% in patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). The enlarged cervical canal area was preserved almost until the final follow-up. The average non-union rates of HA spacers were 21% in CSM and 17% in OPLL, and the average breakage rates were 24 in CSM and 21% in OPLL at the final follow-up. Although non-union and breakage of HA spacers were common, neither of these factors were correlated with restenosis of the enlarged cervical canal.
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    ABSTRACT: Although hydroxyapatite (HA) spacer has been used for laminoplasty, there have been no reports on factors associated with fusion and on the effects of HA shape. During January 2004 and January 2010, 45 patients with compressive cervical myelopathy underwent midline-splitting open door laminoplasty with winged (33 cases) and wingless (12 cases) HAs by a single surgeon. Minimal and mean follow up times were 12 and 28.1 months, respectively. Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score was used for clinical outcome measurement. Cervical X-rays were taken preoperatively, immediately post-operatively, and after 3, 6, and 12 months and computed tomography scans were performed preoperatively, immediately post-operatively and after 12 months. Cervical lordosis, canal dimension, fusion between lamina and HA, and affecting factors of fusion were analyzed. All surgeries were performed on 142 levels, 99 in the winged and 43 in the wingless HA groups. JOA scores of the winged group changed from 10.4±2.94 to 13.3±2.35 and scores of the wingless group changed from 10.8±2.87 to 13.8±3.05. There was no significant difference on lordotic and canal dimensional change between two groups. Post-operative 12 month fusion rate between lamina and HA was significantly lower in the winged group (18.2 vs. 48.8% p=0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, male gender, and wingless type HA were significantly associated with fusion. Clinical outcome was similar in patients receiving winged and wingless HA, but the wingless type was associated with a higher rate of fusion between HA and lamina at 12 months post-operatively.
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