Metals sorption from aqueous solutions by Kluyveromyces marxianus: process optimization, equilibrium modeling and chemical characterization.
ABSTRACT The dead Kluyveromyces marxianus biomass, a fermentation industry waste, was used to explore its sorption potential for lead, mercury, arsenic, cobalt, and cadmium as a function of pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time, agitation speed, and initial metal concentration. The equilibrium data fitted the Langmuir model better for cobalt and cadmium, but Freundlich isotherm for all metals tested. At equilibrium, the maximum uptake capacity (Qmax) was highest for lead followed by mercury, arsenic, cobalt, and cadmium. The RL values ranged between 0-1, indicating favorable sorption of all test metals by the biosorbent. The maximum Kf value of Pb showed its efficient removal from the solution. However, multi-metal analysis depicted that sorption of all metals decreased except Pb. The potentiometric titration of biosorbent revealed the presence of functional groups viz. amines, carboxylic acids, phosphates, and sulfhydryl group involved in heavy metal sorption. The extent of contribution of functional groups and lipids to biosorption was in the order: carboxylic>lipids>amines>phosphates. Blocking of sulfhydryl group did not have any significant effect on metal sorption.
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ABSTRACT: Kluyveromyces marxianus is now considered one of the best choices of option for industrial applications of yeast because the strain is able to grow at high temperature, utilizes various carbon sources, and grows fast. However, the use of K. marxianus as a host for industrial applications is still limited. This limitation is largely due to a lack of knowledge on the characteristics of the promoters since the time and amount of protein expression is strongly dependent on the promoter employed. In this study, four well-known constitutive promoters (P( CYC ), P( TEF ), P( GPD ), and P( ADH )) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were characterized in K. marxianus in terms of protein expression level and their stochastic behavior. After constructing five URA3-auxotrophic K. marxianus strains and a plasmid vector, four cassettes each comprising one of the promoters-the gene for the green fluorescence protein (GFP)-CYC1 terminator (T( CYC )) were inserted into the vector. GFP expression under the control of each one of the promoters was analyzed by reverse transcription PCR, fluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometer. Using these combined methods, the promoter strength was determined to be in the order of P( GPD ) > P( ADH ) ∼ P( TEF ) > P( CYC ). All promoters except for the P( CYC ) exhibited three distinctive populations, including non-expressing cells, weakly expressing cells, and strongly expressing cells. The relative ratios between populations were strongly dependent on the promoter and culture time. Forward scattering was independent of GFP fluorescence intensity, indicating that the different fluorescence intensities were not just due to different cell sizes derived from budding. It also excluded the possibility that the non-expressing cells resulted from plasmid loss because plasmid stability was maintained at almost 100 % over the culture time. The same cassettes, cloned into a single copy plasmid pRS416 and transformed into S. cerevisiae, showed only one population. When the cassettes were integrated into the chromosome, the stochastic behavior was markedly reduced. These combined results imply that the gene expression stochasticity should be overcome in order to use this strain for delicate metabolic engineering, which would require the co-expression of several genes.Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 08/2012; · 3.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Yeasts have a long tradition of application in biotechnology and a more recent history of use as research models for biochemistry, metabolism, genetics and cell biology. Without doubt, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the dominant representative in all these aspects. There is tremendous diversity among yeasts, however, and the application of modern microbiological and molecular approaches has resulted in renewed focus on the biology and industrial potential of other yeasts. The dairy yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus is of particular interest in this regard because of traits that render it especially suitable for industrial application. These include the fastest growth rate of any eukaryotic microbe, thermotolerance, the capacity to assimilate a wide range of sugars, secretion of lytic enzymes, and the production of ethanol by fermentation. Despite the importance of these traits, and significant exploitation by the biotechnology sector, fundamental research with K. marxianus is just emerging from the shadow of its sister species, Kluyveromyces lactis. The availability of new molecular tools and resources for K. marxianus, its interesting metabolic and cellular traits, and the potential to become the leading yeast for many biotechnological processes, argue strongly for increased research into this particular species.Fungal Biology Reviews 01/2010; 24(1):17-26.