Long-Term Functional Recovery After First Ischemic Stroke The Northern Manhattan Study

Neurological Institute, 710 W 168th Street, Box 206, New York, NY 10032.
Stroke (Impact Factor: 5.72). 07/2009; 40(8):2805-11. DOI: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.549576
Source: PubMed


Several factors predict functional status after stroke, but most studies have included hospitalized patients with limited follow-up. We hypothesized that patients with ischemic stroke experience functional decline over 5 years independent of recurrent stroke and other risk factors.
In the population-based Northern Manhattan Study, patients > or =40 years of age with incident ischemic stroke were prospectively followed using the Barthel Index at 6 months and annually to 5 years. Baseline stroke severity was categorized as mild (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale <6), moderate (6 to 13), and severe (> or =14). Follow-up was censored at death, recurrent stroke, or myocardial infarction. Generalized Estimating Equations provided ORs and 95% CIs for predictors of favorable (Barthel Index > or =95) versus unfavorable (Barthel Index <95) functional status after adjusting for demographic and medical risk factors.
Of 525 patients, mean age was 68.6+/-12.4 years, 45.5% were male, 54.7% Hispanic, 54.7% had Medicaid/no insurance, and 35.1% had moderate stroke. The proportion with Barthel Index > or =95 declined over time (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84 to 0.99). Changes in Barthel Index by insurance status were confirmed by a significant interaction term (beta for interaction=-0.167, P=0.034); those with Medicaid/no insurance declined (OR, 0.84; P=0.003), whereas those with Medicare/private insurance did not (OR, 0.99; P=0.92).
The proportion of patients with functional independence after stroke declines annually for up to 5 years, and these effects are greatest for those with Medicaid or no health insurance. This decline is independent of age, stroke severity, and other predictors of functional decline and occurs even among those without recurrent stroke or myocardial infarction.

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Available from: Tatjana Rundek, Jan 26, 2015
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    • "). Less frequently, the FIM has also been used in a variety of such studies (Kwon, Hartzema, Duncan, et al., 2014; Inoyue, Hashimoto, Mio, et al., 2001). While the cut-off points proposed for the functional assessment scales such as the BI (Duncan, Jorgensen, & Wade, 2000; Sulter, Steen & De Keyser, 1999; Dhamoon, Moon, Paik, et al., 2009; Granger, Dewis, Peters, et al., 1979; Quinn, Langhorne, & Stott, 2011; Balu, 2009; Uyttenboogaart, Stewart, Vroomen, 2005) and the FIM (Inoyue, Hashimoto, Mio, et al., 2001) are highly variable, a more consistent stratification of recovery levels has been determined for the mRS (Sulter, Steen & De Keyser, 1999; Uyttenboogaart , Stewart, Vroomen, et al., 2005). However, the mRS is a unidimensional scale which is heavily weighted toward global disability (in particular physical disability), and so other instruments have been developed in an effort to capture non-physical attributes which are essential to a person's self-maintenance and well-being, such as cognition, behaviour and social functioning. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: A wide variety of well-validated assessment scales of functioning and disability have been developed for stroke population. However, these instruments have limitations in their interpretation. Therefore, determining cut-off points for their categorization becomes necessary. Objectives: To determine cut-off points for the BI, FIM and FAM scales to differentiate clinical disability categories and to establish the relationship between mRS and DOS scales. Methods: One hundred and six adults with ischemic or haemorrhagic stroke were mainly recruited from a rehabilitation facility (Hospitales Nisa, Valencia, Spain). Results: A high correlation was observed between the DOS and mRS scales (Kendall's tau-b = 0.475; p = 0.000) although a certain amount of disagreement between the two scales was detected. The cut-off points were 62.90 (95% CI, 57.26-69.29) and 21.30 (95% CI, 16.34-26.03) for the BI; 70.62 (95% CI, 66.65-75.22) and 38.29 (95% CI, 34.07-42.25) for the FIM; and 116.07 (95% CI, 110.30-122.68) and 66.02 (95% CI, 59.20-72.35) for the FAM. Conclusion(s): DOS was observed to be more demanding than the mRS, in terms of patient independence. Additionally, the lower cut-off points separating the levels of severe and moderate disability in the BI, FIM and FAM were determined. These findings would facilitate practitioners clinical interpretation of disability levels in post-stroke patients.
    Neurorehabilitation 10/2015; 37(2). DOI:10.3233/NRE-151249 · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    • "Literature has demonstrated that, as a stroke enters its chronic or long term post-insult phase, there is increased risk of future stroke and functional decline reported at 5.0% and 9.0% respectively [2,3]. These risks occur even among survivors who have achieved full recovery following rehabilitation. "
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    ABSTRACT: The importance of long term rehabilitation for people with stroke is increasingly evident, yet it is not known whether such services can be materialised in countries with limited community resources. In this study, we explored the perception of rehabilitation professionals and people with stroke towards long term stroke rehabilitation services and potential approaches to enable provision of these services. Views from providers and users are important in ensuring whatever strategies developed for long term stroke rehabilitations are feasible and acceptable. Focus group discussions were conducted involving 15 rehabilitation professionals and eight long term stroke survivors. All recorded conversations were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the principles of qualitative research. Both groups agreed that people with stroke may benefit from more rehabilitation compared to the amount of rehabilitation services presently provided. Views regarding the unavailability of long term rehabilitation services due to multi-factorial barriers were recognised. The groups also highlighted the urgent need for the establishment of community-based stroke rehabilitation centres. Family-assisted home therapy was viewed as a potential approach to continued rehabilitation for long term stroke survivors, given careful planning to overcome several family-related issues. Barriers to the provision of long term stroke rehabilitation services are multi-factorial. Establishment of community-based stroke rehabilitation centres and training family members to conduct home-based therapy are two potential strategies to enable the continuation of rehabilitation for long term stroke survivors.
    BMC Health Services Research 03/2014; 14(1):118. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-14-118 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    • "There is considerable evidence that early and continued intervention following ABI is likely to enhance the recovery process and minimize functional disability [2], [3]. Post-discharge care is often not comprehensive, integrated, nor well-coordinated [4] and there is growing evidence that the long term management of people who have had an ABI will improve with a more organized, multidisciplinary approach to post-acute rehabilitation [5], [6]. There is no doubt that healthcare systems around the world are having greater and greater difficulty in responding to the challenges presented by increased longevity and costly resources [7] [8]. "
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    Virtual Rehabilitation (ICVR), 2013 International Conference on; 08/2013
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