Repression of BMI1 in normal and leukemic human CD34(+) cells impairs self-renewal and induces apoptosis.
ABSTRACT High expression of BMI1 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. Therefore, the effects of down-modulation of BMI1 in normal and leukemic CD34(+) AML cells were studied using a lentiviral RNA interference approach. We demonstrate that down-modulation of BMI1 in cord blood CD34(+) cells impaired long-term expansion and progenitor-forming capacity, both in cytokine-driven liquid cultures as well as in bone marrow stromal cocultures. In addition, long-term culture-initiating cell frequencies were dramatically decreased upon knockdown of BMI1, indicating an impaired maintenance of stem and progenitor cells. The reduced progenitor and stem cell frequencies were associated with increased expression of p14ARF and p16INK4A and enhanced apoptosis, which coincided with increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and reduced FOXO3A expression. In AML CD34(+) cells, down-modulation of BMI1 impaired long-term expansion, whereby self-renewal capacity was lost, as determined by the loss of replating capacity of the cultures. These phenotypes were also associated with increased expression levels of p14ARF and p16INK4A. Together our data indicate that BMI1 expression is required for maintenance and self-renewal of normal and leukemic stem and progenitor cells, and that expression of BMI1 protects cells against oxidative stress.
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ABSTRACT: The polycomb-group (PcG) proteins function as general regulators of stem cells. We previously reported that retrovirus-mediated overexpression of Bmi1, a gene encoding a core component of polycomb repressive complex (PRC) 1, maintained self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during long-term culture. However, the effects of overexpression of Bmi1 on HSCs in vivo remained to be precisely addressed. In this study, we generated a mouse line where Bmi1 can be conditionally overexpressed under the control of the endogenous Rosa26 promoter in a hematopoietic cell-specific fashion (Tie2-Cre;R26Stop(FL)Bmi1). Although overexpression of Bmi1 did not significantly affect steady state hematopoiesis, it promoted expansion of functional HSCs during ex vivo culture and efficiently protected HSCs against loss of self-renewal capacity during serial transplantation. Overexpression of Bmi1 had no effect on DNA damage response triggered by ionizing radiation. In contrast, Tie2-Cre;R26Stop(FL)Bmi1 HSCs under oxidative stress maintained a multipotent state and generally tolerated oxidative stress better than the control. Unexpectedly, overexpression of Bmi1 had no impact on the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our findings demonstrate that overexpression of Bmi1 confers resistance to stresses, particularly oxidative stress, onto HSCs. This thereby enhances their regenerative capacity and suggests that Bmi1 is located downstream of ROS signaling and negatively regulated by it.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e36209. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Holoclone forming cells from pancreatic cancer cells enrich tumor initiating cells and represent a novel model for study of cancer stem cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is one of the direct causes of cancer-related death. High level of chemoresistance is one of the major obstacles of clinical treatment. In recent years, cancer stem cells have been widely identified and indicated as the origin of chemoresistance in multi-types of solid tumors. Increasing evidences suggest that cancer stem cells reside in the cells capable of forming holoclones continuously. However, in pancreatic cancer, holoclone-forming cells have not been characterized yet. Therefore, the goal of our present study was to indentify the holoclone-forming pancreatic cancer stem cells and develop an in vitro continuous colony formation system, which will greatly facilitate the study of pancreatic cancer stem cells. Pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC3 was submitted to monoclonal cultivation to generate colonies. Based on the morphologies, colonies were classified and analyzed for their capacities of secondary colony formation, long-term survival in vitro, tumor formation in vivo, and drug resistance. Flowcytometry and quantitative RT-PCR were performed to detect the expression level of cancer stem cells associated cell surface markers, regulatory genes and microRNAs in distinct types of colonies. Three types of colonies with distinct morphologies were identified and termed as holo-, mero-, and paraclones, in which only holoclones generated descendant colonies of all three types in further passages. Compared to mero- and paraclones, holoclones possessed higher capacities of long-term survival, tumor initiation, and chemoresistance. The preferential expression of cancer stem cells related marker (CXCR4), regulatory genes (BMI1, GLI1, and GLI2) and microRNAs (miR-214, miR-21, miR-221, miR-222 and miR-155) in holoclones were also highlighted. Our results indicate that the pancreatic tumor-initiating cells with high level of chemoresistance were enriched in holoclones derived from BxPC3 cell line. Generation of holoclones can serve as a novel model for studying cancer stem cells, and attribute to developing new anti-cancer drugs.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e23383. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cancer stem cell (CSC), or alternatively referred to as the tumor initiating cell (TIC) model, proposes that human cancers are organized in a hierarchical structure with the CSC at the apex. Cancer stem cells are functionally defined by their ability to self-renew, and to recapitulate the hierarchy of the original tumor from which they were derived. Emerging data from the literature suggest that CSCs might be the fraction within the tumor that resists conventional therapies; hence, the CSC paradigm provides new insight into tumor progression and relapse. Herein, we provide literature review of the CSC model, with emphasis on the translational and clinical implications of this model.Saudi medical journal 12/2011; 32(12):1229-34. · 0.52 Impact Factor