Hydration status does not influence peritoneal equilibration test ultrafiltration volumes.
ABSTRACT The peritoneal equilibration test (PET) was developed some 25 yr ago and has been used to help prescribe peritoneal dialysis. However, PET is affected by several factors, including diabetes and inflammation. It was speculated that extracellular fluid overload would increase PET ultrafiltration volumes, and therefore the usefulness of the PET in routine clinical practice was audited.
Data from 211 consecutive patients attending a university teaching hospital for a standard PET who had multifrequency bioimpedance performance were analyzed to determine which factors affected net PET ultrafiltration volumes.
Net PET ultrafiltration volume was independent of gender, age, diabetes, residual renal function, peritoneal dialysis prescriptions (modes and dialysates), extracellular fluid volume, or C-reactive protein (CRP). There was an inverse regression with serum albumin and sodium on multiple logistical regression analysis (F = 13.4, P < 0.001 and F = 10.1, P = 0.001, respectively) and a positive regression with 24-h net peritoneal ultrafiltration volumes (F = 15.5, P < 0.001). As expected, there was a strong correlation with net sodium losses (r = 0.99, P < 0001).
It was found that PET test ultrafiltration volume in routine clinical practice was not affected by CRP, hyperglycemia, or extracellular fluid volume overload. Ultrafiltration volumes were increased in those patients with reduced serum sodium and albumin, most likely because of inflammation and protein malnutrition.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the non-invasive assessments of volume status in patients with cirrhosis. Echocardiography and multifrequency bioimpedance analysis measurements and short synacthen tests were made in 20 stable and 25 acutely decompensated patients with cirrhosis. Both groups had similar clinical assessments, cortisol response and total body water (TBW), however the ratio of extracellular water (ECW)/TBW was significantly greater in the trunk (0.420 ± 0.004 vs 0.404 ± 0.005), and limbs (R leg 0.41 ± 0.003 vs 0.398 ± 0.003, P < 0.05, and L leg 0.412 ± 0.003 vs 0.399 ± 0.003) with decompensated cirrhosis compared to stable cirrhotics, P < 0.05). Echocardiogram derived right atrial and ventricular filling and end diastolic pressures and presence of increased left ventricular end diastolic volume and diastolic dysfunction were similar in both groups. The decompensated group had lower systemic blood pressure, mean systolic 101.8 ± 4.3 vs 122.4 ± 5.3 and diastolic 58.4 ± 4.1 mmHg vs 68.8 ± 3.1 mmHg respectively, P < 0.01, and serum albumin 30 (27-33) vs 32 (31-40.5) g/L, P < 0.01. Decompensated cirrhotics had greater leg and truncal ECW expansion with lower serum albumin levels consistent with intravascular volume depletion and increased vascular permeability.World journal of hepatology. 08/2013; 5(8):433-8.
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ABSTRACT: The majority of haemodialysis (HD) patients gain weight between dialysis sessions and thereby become volume overloaded, whereas peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a more continuous technique. Cardiovascular mortality and hypertension is increased with both treatment modalities. We therefore wished to compare volume status in PD and HD to determine whether PD patients are chronically volume overloaded, as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Study Design, Setting and Participants:We retrospectively audited 72 healthy HD patients and 115 healthy PD patients attending a university hospital dialysis centre for routine outpatient treatment, who had multi-frequency bioimpedance measurements of extracellular water to total body water (ECW/TBW). The groups were well matched for age, sex, weight and ethnicity, PD patients had greater urine output [1,075 (485-1,613) vs. 42.5 (0-1,020) ml/day, p < 0.001], but there was no difference in antihypertensive prescription (63.5 vs. 76.4%), mean arterial blood pressure (post-dialysis 101.6 ± 1.5 mm Hg vs. pre-dialysis 102 ± 2.4 mm Hg), although post-dialysis arterial blood pressure was lower than in PD patients (96.4 ± 3.1 mm Hg, p < 0.05). The ratio of ECW/TBW fell after HD (pre-dialysis 0.394 ± 0.001 vs. post-dialysis 0.389 ± 0.004, p < 0.001) and was similar in the PD group to the group before HD (0.393 ± 0.001), and greater than that in the group after HD (p < 0.001). ECW/TBW was greater than the normal reference range in 30% PD patients, 28% patients before HD and 20% patients after HD. Overhydration is common in healthy stable PD outpatients, and ECW volumes in PD patients are not dissimilar to those of pre-dialysis HD patients. The role of chronic volume overload as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease needs further investigation.Nephron extra. 01/2012; 2(1):48-54.
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ABSTRACT: Residual renal function is a major survival determinant for peritoneal dialysis patients. Hypovolemia can cause acute kidney injury and loss of residual renal function, and it has been suggested that patients receiving peritoneal dialysis should preferably be maintained hypervolemic to preserve residual renal function. Here we determined whether hydration status predicted long-term changes in residual renal function. Changes in residual renal function and extracellular water (ECW) to total body water (TBW) measured by multifrequency bioimpedance in 237 adult patients who had paired baseline and serial 12 monthly measurements were examined. Baseline hydration status (ECW/TBW) was not significantly associated with preservation of residual renal function, unlike baseline and follow-up mean arterial blood pressure. When the cohort was split into tertiles according to baseline hydration status, there was no significant correlation seen between change in hydration status and subsequent loss in residual renal function. Increased ECW/TBW in peritoneal dialysis patients was not associated with preservation of residual renal function. Similarly, increments and decrements in ECW/TBW were not associated with preservation or reduction in residual renal function. Thus, our study does not support the view that overhydration preserves residual renal function and such a policy risks the consequences of persistent hypervolemia.Kidney International advance online publication, 24 July 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.273.Kidney International 07/2013; · 8.52 Impact Factor