Hydration status does not influence peritoneal equilibration test ultrafiltration volumes.
ABSTRACT The peritoneal equilibration test (PET) was developed some 25 yr ago and has been used to help prescribe peritoneal dialysis. However, PET is affected by several factors, including diabetes and inflammation. It was speculated that extracellular fluid overload would increase PET ultrafiltration volumes, and therefore the usefulness of the PET in routine clinical practice was audited.
Data from 211 consecutive patients attending a university teaching hospital for a standard PET who had multifrequency bioimpedance performance were analyzed to determine which factors affected net PET ultrafiltration volumes.
Net PET ultrafiltration volume was independent of gender, age, diabetes, residual renal function, peritoneal dialysis prescriptions (modes and dialysates), extracellular fluid volume, or C-reactive protein (CRP). There was an inverse regression with serum albumin and sodium on multiple logistical regression analysis (F = 13.4, P < 0.001 and F = 10.1, P = 0.001, respectively) and a positive regression with 24-h net peritoneal ultrafiltration volumes (F = 15.5, P < 0.001). As expected, there was a strong correlation with net sodium losses (r = 0.99, P < 0001).
It was found that PET test ultrafiltration volume in routine clinical practice was not affected by CRP, hyperglycemia, or extracellular fluid volume overload. Ultrafiltration volumes were increased in those patients with reduced serum sodium and albumin, most likely because of inflammation and protein malnutrition.
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ABSTRACT: Peritoneal dialysis adequacy is typically assessed by urea clearance corrected for total body water (TBW) on the basis of anthropomorphic equations, which do not readily take into account changes in body composition, which may vary between ethnic groups. To determine whether ethnicity could affect estimates of peritoneal dialysis adequacy, we compared TBW estimated by anthropomorphic equations and that measured by multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy. We calculated TBW in 600 healthy adult peritoneal dialysis outpatient attending two tertiary university hospitals serving an inner-city multiethnic population who had TBW measured by multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy performed. 600 adult peritoneal dialysis patients were studied: mean age, 56.7 ± 0.6 years; 54.2% men; 29.7% diabetic; mean body mass index, 26.1 ± 0.2; 47.3% Caucasian; 29.2% South Asian; 12.8% African/Afro-Caribbean. Total body water was calculated using several anthropomorphic equations and was higher than that calculated MEASURED BY MF-BIS for all ethnic groups, apart from African/Afro-Caribbeans, with the greatest difference between Watson calculated TBW and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy 12.3 ± 0.6% for the South Asians, 9.0 ± 2.6% for Far Eastern Asians, 2.8 ± 0.6% Caucasians, and -0.2 ± 1.5% for African/Afro-Caribbeans. In this United Kingdom-based multiethnic population, body composition differed particularly for the South Asian patients compared with Caucasians and African/Afro-Caribbeans. Overestimation of TBW by anthropomorphic-based equations would lead to a lower calculation of Kt/V(urea), which may lead to changes in peritoneal dialysis prescription to achieve clinical standard targets and also affect studies examining the relationship between Kt/V and survival.Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 09/2011; 6(10):2492-8. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The majority of haemodialysis (HD) patients gain weight between dialysis sessions and thereby become volume overloaded, whereas peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a more continuous technique. Cardiovascular mortality and hypertension is increased with both treatment modalities. We therefore wished to compare volume status in PD and HD to determine whether PD patients are chronically volume overloaded, as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Study Design, Setting and Participants:We retrospectively audited 72 healthy HD patients and 115 healthy PD patients attending a university hospital dialysis centre for routine outpatient treatment, who had multi-frequency bioimpedance measurements of extracellular water to total body water (ECW/TBW). The groups were well matched for age, sex, weight and ethnicity, PD patients had greater urine output [1,075 (485-1,613) vs. 42.5 (0-1,020) ml/day, p < 0.001], but there was no difference in antihypertensive prescription (63.5 vs. 76.4%), mean arterial blood pressure (post-dialysis 101.6 ± 1.5 mm Hg vs. pre-dialysis 102 ± 2.4 mm Hg), although post-dialysis arterial blood pressure was lower than in PD patients (96.4 ± 3.1 mm Hg, p < 0.05). The ratio of ECW/TBW fell after HD (pre-dialysis 0.394 ± 0.001 vs. post-dialysis 0.389 ± 0.004, p < 0.001) and was similar in the PD group to the group before HD (0.393 ± 0.001), and greater than that in the group after HD (p < 0.001). ECW/TBW was greater than the normal reference range in 30% PD patients, 28% patients before HD and 20% patients after HD. Overhydration is common in healthy stable PD outpatients, and ECW volumes in PD patients are not dissimilar to those of pre-dialysis HD patients. The role of chronic volume overload as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease needs further investigation.Nephron extra. 01/2012; 2(1):48-54.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the non-invasive assessments of volume status in patients with cirrhosis. Echocardiography and multifrequency bioimpedance analysis measurements and short synacthen tests were made in 20 stable and 25 acutely decompensated patients with cirrhosis. Both groups had similar clinical assessments, cortisol response and total body water (TBW), however the ratio of extracellular water (ECW)/TBW was significantly greater in the trunk (0.420 ± 0.004 vs 0.404 ± 0.005), and limbs (R leg 0.41 ± 0.003 vs 0.398 ± 0.003, P < 0.05, and L leg 0.412 ± 0.003 vs 0.399 ± 0.003) with decompensated cirrhosis compared to stable cirrhotics, P < 0.05). Echocardiogram derived right atrial and ventricular filling and end diastolic pressures and presence of increased left ventricular end diastolic volume and diastolic dysfunction were similar in both groups. The decompensated group had lower systemic blood pressure, mean systolic 101.8 ± 4.3 vs 122.4 ± 5.3 and diastolic 58.4 ± 4.1 mmHg vs 68.8 ± 3.1 mmHg respectively, P < 0.01, and serum albumin 30 (27-33) vs 32 (31-40.5) g/L, P < 0.01. Decompensated cirrhotics had greater leg and truncal ECW expansion with lower serum albumin levels consistent with intravascular volume depletion and increased vascular permeability.World journal of hepatology. 08/2013; 5(8):433-8.