This study evaluates whether depression is a risk factor for incident myocardial infarction (MI) in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) between 30 and 79 years of age.
We used a retrospective cohort study of 15,634 patients with RA. Diagnoses and sociodemographic data were obtained from VA administrative and pharmacy databases between fiscal years 1999 and 2006. Entry into the cohort required 2 years of patient time with no evidence of cardiovascular disease. Cox proportional hazard models with time-dependent covariates were computed to determine whether RA patients with depression as compared to RA patients without depression were at increased risk for MI during the maximum 6-year follow-up period.
Unadjusted analyses indicated depressed RA patients were 1.4 times more likely than nondepressed RA patients to have an MI during follow-up. These results remained significant (HR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.8) in the adjusted Cox proportional hazards model which included the effects of sociodemographics and known physical risks (e.g., diabetes) for MI.
Depressed RA patients, without a history of cardiovascular disease, are 40% more likely to have a heart attack as compared to those without depression. These data demonstrate a rapid (within 6 years) transition to MI following onset of depression in RA patients. Increased monitoring of depression and heart disease status in this patient population may be warranted which in turn may result in longer duration of life.
"From records in LHID, we identified patients with COPD among adults newly diagnosed during 2000–2004 with the ICD codes of 491, 492, and 496 as the COPD cohort. To reduce the misclassification, we selected patients with at least two diagnosis of COPD in outpatient visits within 12 months or patients being admitted to hospital with a primary diagnosis of COPD during the 5-year period [17,21]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depression is a common and mostly undertreated problem in patients with chronic diseases. However, population-based studies on the association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and subsequent depression are limited in Asian populations. This study evaluated the incidence and risk factors of depression for patients with COPD in Taiwan.
Using the claims data from the National Health Insurance of Taiwan, we identified 38,010 COPD patients newly diagnosed in 2000--2004 and 38,010 subjects without COPD frequency, matched by sex, age and index date. The incidence rate and hazard ratio for depression were estimated by the end of 2008.
The incidence rate of depression was 1.88 folds higher in the COPD cohort than in the non-COPD cohort (12.2 versus 6.47 per 1,000 person-years, p < 0.0001). The depression risk was the greatest within the first year following COPD diagnosis and tended to decline with follow-up time. Among COPD patients, multivariate analysis showed that younger women and low-income patients were at higher risk of depression. Hospitalization and comorbidities such as hypertension, arthritis, cancer, and heart disease were also significant predictors for depression risk.
This population-based cohort study demonstrated a strong relationship between COPD and subsequent depression. These findings could assist healthcare providers to pinpoint individuals with a higher predisposition to having depression, which could then facilitate the provision of culturally appropriate rehabilitation within the first year after the diagnosis of COPD.
BMC Public Health 10/2013; 13(1):976. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-976 · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The rate of comorbid depression and medical illness varies from 10 to 40%. Patients with depressive disorder compared to general population more often have cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders, diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome, and some types of tumor. Side effects of mental health medications may appear in a form that is very similar to clinical presentation of somatic illness. Side effects that appear during treatment of depressive disorder, e. g. cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, movement disorders, etc., may provoke certain diagnostic issues regarding origin of such symptoms (somatic illness vs. side effect). The aim of this article is to review literature regarding comorbidity of depressive disorder and somatic illness and to point at possible diagnostic problems in differentiating comorbid somatic illness and side effects of antidepressants. CONTENT ANALYSIS OF LITERATURE: Literature research included structured searches of Medline and other publications on the subject of comorbidity of depressive disorder and somatic disorders and possible diagnostic problems in differentiating comorbid somatic illnesses from side effects of antidepressants. CONCLUSION: Comorbidity between depressive disorder and various somatic disorders appears often. Investigations suggest that depressive disorder is underdiagnosed in such cases. Side effects of antidepressants are sometimes very hard to differentiate from symptoms of somatic illness, which may lead to diagnostic issues. Bearing in mind frequent comorbidity between of depressive and somatic disorders, early recognition of such comorbidity is important, as well as the selection of antidepressant. It is important to recognize depressive disorder in patients with somatic illnesses, as well as somatic illness in patients primarily treated because of depressive disorder.
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