Enhancement of gene transfection into human dendritic cells using cationic PLGA nanospheres with a synthesized nuclear localization signal.
ABSTRACT Effective delivery of DNA encoding antigen into the dendritic cells (DCs), which are non-dividing cells, is very important for the development of DNA vaccines. In a previous study, we developed the PLGA nanospheres that contained a cationic nanomaterial and showed high transfection efficiency in COS7 cells, which divide. In the present study, to produce an effective vector for the DNA vaccines, the gene expression and intracellular trafficking of pDNA complexed with PLGA/PEI nanospheres, in combination with an NF-kappaB analog as a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and electroporation were evaluated in human monocyte-derived DCs (hMoDCs). Cellular uptake of pDNA both in COS7 cells and hMoDCs was enhanced using the PLGA/PEI nanospheres. On the other hand, the PLGA/PEI nanospheres significantly promoted the transfection in COS7 cells, but had almost no effect on transfection in hMoDCs. The intranuclear transport of pDNA by PLGA/PEI nanospheres in COS7 cells was significantly higher than that in hMoDCs. These results indicate that pDNA complexed with PLGA/PEI nanospheres cannot enter into the nuclei of non-dividing cells. However, PLGA/PEI nanospheres combinated with NLS and electroporation (experimental permeation enhancer) greatly elevated the transfection efficiency by improvement of not only intracellular uptake but also intranuclear transport of pDNA in the hMoDCs. Thus, this delivery system using nanospheres combined with synthesized NLS might be applicable to DC-based gene vaccines when much non-invasive application such as needle-free injector should be required.
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ABSTRACT: 25 kDa branched polyethylenimines are modified by N-isopropylacrylamide via Michael addition. An agarose gel retardation assay shows that all derivatives display good binding affinity toward plasmid DNA. The modified PEI-25K shows lower cytotoxicity in MTT assay and better transfection efficiency than unmodified PEI-25K in HeLa cells. The endocytosis efficiency of the optimized complexes is determined to be 99.9% by flow cytometry. More interestingly, although the derivatives are not designed to conjugate with targeting ligands or nuclear localization signals, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) demonstrates that the optimized derivative results in increased endocytosis and strongly enhanced nuclear uptake compared with PEI-25K.Macromolecular Bioscience 11/2012; · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Supramolecular micelles as drug-delivery vehicles are generally unable to enter the nucleus of nondividing cells. In the work reported here, nuclear localization signal (NLS)-modified polymeric micelles were studied with the aim of improving nuclear drug delivery. In this research, cholesterol-modified glycol chitosan (CHGC) was synthesized. NLS-conjugated CHGC (NCHGC) was synthesized and characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Doxorubicin (DOX), an anticancer drug with an intracellular site of action in the nucleus, was chosen as a model drug. DOX-loaded micelles were prepared by an emulsion/solvent evaporation method. The cellular uptake of different DOX formulations was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The cytotoxicity of blank micelles, free DOX, and DOX-loaded micelles in vitro was investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in HeLa and HepG2 cells. The degree of substitution was 5.9 cholesterol and 3.8 NLS groups per 100 sugar residues of the NCHGC conjugate. The critical aggregation concentration of the NCHGC micelles in aqueous solution was 0.0209 mg/mL. The DOX-loaded NCHGC (DNCHGC) micelles were observed as being almost spherical in shape under transmission electron microscopy, and the size was determined as 248 nm by dynamic light scattering. The DOX-loading content of the DNCHGC micelles was 10.1%. The DOX-loaded micelles showed slow drug-release behavior within 72 hours in vitro. The DNCHGC micelles exhibited greater cellular uptake and higher amounts of DOX in the nuclei of HeLa cells than free DOX and DOX-loaded CHGC (DCHGC) micelles. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of free DOX, DCHGC, and DNCHGC micelles against HepG2 cells were 4.063, 0.591, and 0.171 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the IC(50) values of free DOX (3.210 μg/mL) and the DCHGC micelles (1.413 μg/mL) against HeLa cells were nearly 6.96- and 3.07-fold (P < 0.01), respectively, higher than the IC(50) value of the DNCHGC micelles (0.461 μg/mL). The results of this study suggest that novel NCHGC micelles could be a potential carrier for nucleus-targeting delivery.International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2012; 7:5079-90. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biomaterials have been shown to differentially support dendritic cell (DC) maturation, a prerequisite for an adjuvant effect. Treatment of DCs with poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films resulted in DC maturation but agarose films did not. In these studies, the biomaterial adjuvant effect was attenuated by material selection (PLGA or agarose scaffolds) or local delivery of an anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (DX), from PLGA scaffolds. Porous scaffolds (SCs) of PLGA or agarose were produced to deliver equivalent amounts of model antigen, ovalbumin (OVA). Alternatively, PLGA SCs with incorporated OVA were produced with or without DX. These SCs were implanted individually, subcutaneously, and dorsally in C57BL/6 mice. Blood was collected from mice at specific times over a 12-week duration for measurement of antibody production against OVA. Scaffolds were explanted at 12 weeks for histological examination of foreign body response. Scaffolds of PLGA, but not of agarose, were found to elicit higher antibody production against co-delivered OVA, than negative controls. Short-term delivery of DX from PLGA SCs delivering OVA temporarily delayed onset of anti-OVA antibody production. More sustained release of DX at an effective dose and with an appropriate time course is expected to extend the effect of DX on the biomaterial adjuvant effect. The immunomodulatory ability of biomaterials to affect the immune response to co-delivered antigen is demonstrated wherein this immunomodulatory ability correlates with the observed in vitro differential effects of biomaterials on DC maturation.Journal of Controlled Release 09/2010; 146(3):341-8. · 7.63 Impact Factor