The glial nature of embryonic and adult neural stem cells.

The Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0525, USA.
Annual Review of Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 22.66). 08/2009; 32:149-84. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.neuro.051508.135600
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Glial cells were long considered end products of neural differentiation, specialized supportive cells with an origin very different from that of neurons. New studies have shown that some glial cells--radial glia (RG) in development and specific subpopulations of astrocytes in adult mammals--function as primary progenitors or neural stem cells (NSCs). This is a fundamental departure from classical views separating neuronal and glial lineages early in development. Direct visualization of the behavior of NSCs and lineage-tracing studies reveal how neuronal lineages emerge. In development and in the adult brain, many neurons and glial cells are not the direct progeny of NSCs, but instead originate from transit amplifying, or intermediate, progenitor cells (IPCs). Within NSCs and IPCs, genetic programs unfold for generating the extraordinary diversity of cell types in the central nervous system. The timing in development and location of NSCs, a property tightly linked to their neuroepithelial origin, appear to be the key determinants of the types of neurons generated. Identification of NSCs and IPCs is critical to understand brain development and adult neurogenesis and to develop new strategies for brain repair.

Download full-text


Available from: Arnold R Kriegstein, Dec 16, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alterations in cerebral cortex connectivity lead to intellectual disability and in Down syndrome, this is associated with a deficit in cortical neurons that arises during prenatal development. However, the pathogenic mechanisms that cause this deficit have not yet been defined. Here we show that the human DYRK1A kinase on chromosome 21 tightly regulates the nuclear levels of Cyclin D1 in embryonic cortical stem (radial glia) cells, and that a modest increase in DYRK1A protein in transgenic embryos lengthens the G1 phase in these progenitors. These alterations promote asymmetric proliferative divisions at the expense of neurogenic divisions, producing a deficit in cortical projection neurons that persists in postnatal stages. Moreover, radial glial progenitors in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome have less Cyclin D1, and Dyrk1a is the triplicated gene that causes both early cortical neurogenic defects and decreased nuclear Cyclin D1 levels in this model. These data provide insights into the mechanisms that couple cell cycle regulation and neuron production in cortical neural stem cells, emphasizing that the deleterious effect of DYRK1A triplication in the formation of the cerebral cortex begins at the onset of neurogenesis, which is relevant to the search for early therapeutic interventions in Down syndrome.
    02/2015; 2(2):120-134. DOI:10.1016/j.ebiom.2015.01.010
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Accumulated data indicate that self-renewal, multipotency, and differentiation of neural stem cells are under an intrinsic control mediated by alterations in the redox homeostasis. These dynamic redox changes not only reflect and support the ongoing metabolic and energetic processes, but also serve to coordinate redox-signaling cascades. Controlling particular redox couples seems to have a relevant impact on cell fate decision during development, adult neurogenesis and regeneration. Our own research provided initial evidence for the importance of NAD(+)-dependent enzymes in neural stem cell fate decision. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge on the active role of reactive oxygen species, redox couples and redox-signaling mechanisms on plasticity and function of neural stem and progenitor cells focusing on NAD(P)(+)/NAD(P)H-mediated processes. The compartmentalized subcellular sources and availability of oxidizing/reducing molecules in particular microenvironment define the specificity of redox regulation in modulating the delicate balance between stemness and differentiation of neural progenitors. The generalization of "reactive oxygen species" as well as the ambiguity of their origin might explain the diametrically-opposed findings in the field of redox-dependent cell fate reflected by the literature. Increasing knowledge of temporary and spatially defined redox regulation is of high relevance for the development of novel approaches in the field of cell-based regeneration of nervous tissue in various pathological states. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Redox regulation of differentiation and de-differentiation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects 02/2015; 97(8). DOI:10.1016/j.bbagen.2015.01.022 · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The major neural stem cell population in the developing cerebral cortex is composed of the radial glial cells, which generate glial cells and neurons. The mechanisms that modulate the maintenance of the radial glia (RG) stem cell phenotype, or its differentiation, are not yet completely understood. We previously demonstrated that the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) promotes RG differentiation into astrocytes in vitro (Glia 2007; 55:1023-33) through activation of multiple canonical and non-canonical signaling pathways (Dev Neurosci 2012; 34:68-81). However, it remains unknown if TGF-β1 acts in RG-astrocyte differentiation in vivo. Here, we addressed the astrogliogenesis induced by TGF-β1 by using the intraventricular in utero injection in vivo approach. We show that injection of TGF-β1 in the lateral ventricles of E14,5 mice embryos resulted in RG fibers disorganization and premature gliogenesis, evidenced by appearance of GFAP positive cells in the cortical wall. These events were followed by decreased numbers of neurons in the cortical plate (CP). Together, we also described that TGF-β1 actions are region-dependent, once RG cells from dorsal region of the cerebral cortex demonstrated to be more responsive to this cytokine compared with RG from lateral cortex either in vitro as well as in vivo. Our work demonstrated that TGF-β1 is a critical cytokine that regulates RG fate decision and differentiation into astrocytes in vitro and in vivo. We also suggest that RG cells are heterogeneous population that acts as distinct targets of TGF-β1 during cerebral cortex development.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 11/2014; 8:393. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2014.00393 · 4.18 Impact Factor