Annexin-1 regulates macrophage IL-6 and TNF via glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper.

Centre for Inflammatory Diseases, Department of Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.52). 07/2009; 183(2):1435-45. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.0804000
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Annexin-1 (ANXA1) is a mediator of the anti-inflammatory actions of endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoids (GC). The mechanism of ANXA1 effects on cytokine production in macrophages is unknown and is here investigated in vivo and in vitro. In response to LPS administration, ANXA1(-/-) mice exhibited significantly increased serum IL-6 and TNF compared with wild-type (WT) controls. Similarly, LPS-induced IL-6 and TNF were significantly greater in ANXA1(-/-) than in WT peritoneal macrophages in vitro. In addition, deficiency of ANXA1 was associated with impairment of the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone (DEX) on LPS-induced IL-6 and TNF in macrophages. Increased LPS-induced cytokine expression in the absence of ANXA1 was accompanied by significantly increased LPS-induced activation of ERK and JNK MAPK and was abrogated by inhibition of either of these pathways. No differences in GC effects on MAPK or MAPK phosphatase 1 were observed in ANXA1(-/-) cells. In contrast, GC-induced expression of the regulatory protein GILZ was significantly reduced in ANXA1(-/-) cells by silencing of ANXA1 in WT cells and in macrophages of ANXA1(-/-) mice in vivo. GC-induced GILZ expression and GC inhibition of NF-kappaB activation were restored by expression of ANXA1 in ANXA1(-/-) cells, and GILZ overexpression in ANXA1(-/-) macrophages reduced ERK MAPK phosphorylation and restored sensitivity of cytokine expression and NF-kappaB activation to GC. These data confirm ANXA1 as a key inhibitor of macrophage cytokine expression and identify GILZ as a previously unrecognized mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effects of ANXA1.

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    ABSTRACT: Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is an effector of the resolution of inflammation highly effective in terminating acute inflammatory responses. However, its role in chronic settings is less investigated. Since changes in AnxA1 expression within the adipose tissue characterize obesity in mice and humans, we queried a possible role for AnxA1 in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a disease commonly associated with obesity. NASH was induced in wild-type (WT) and AnxA1 knockout (AnxA1-KO) C57BL/6 mice by feeding a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet up to 8 weeks. In MCD-fed WT mice, hepatic AnxA1 increased in parallel with the progression of liver injury. This mediator was also detected in liver biopsies from patients with NASH and its degree of expression inversely correlated with the extent of fibrosis. In both humans and rodents, AnxA1 production was selectively localized in liver macrophages. NASH in AnxA1-KO mice was characterized by enhanced lobular inflammation due to increased macrophage recruitment and the exacerbation of the M1 phenotype. Consistently, in vitro addition of recombinant AnxA1 to macrophages isolated from NASH livers down-modulated M1 polarization through stimulation of IL-10 production. Furthermore, the degree of hepatic fibrosis was enhanced in MCD-fed AnxA1-KO mice, an effect associated with augmented liver production of the pro-fibrotic lectin galectin-3. Accordingly, AnxA1 addition to isolated hepatic macrophages reduced galectin-3 expression. Conclusions: Macrophage-derived AnxA1 plays a functional role in modulating hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis during NASH progression, suggesting the possible use of AnxA1 analogues for the therapeutic control of this disease. (Hepatology 2014;).
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    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids have broad-ranging and powerful anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Unsurprisingly, therefore, glucocorticoids are widely and persistently used to treat a large number of inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), despite the well-described adverse effects of these drugs. Annexin A1 is a glucocorticoid-induced molecule that is known to replicate many of the described anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. In addition to the well-documented roles of this protein in neutrophil function, emerging evidence suggests that annexin A1 is involved in the modulation of T-cell function and the adaptive immune responses relevant to RA. Interest in annexin A1 was renewed after the delineation of the receptors for this protein. This breakthrough also led to advances in our understanding of anti-inflammatory annexin A1 mimetic peptides and agonistic compounds targeting these receptors, particularly those specific for the receptor N-formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2). Herein, we review the current knowledge of the biological activities of annexin A1 and their relevance to RA pathogenesis. We also discuss the potential of annexin A1 mimics and strategies aimed at potentiating annexin A1 signalling to become viable approaches to minimizing glucocorticoid use in RA and other inflammatory disorders.
    Nature Reviews Rheumatology 08/2013; · 9.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids (GC) are the most commonly prescribed medications for patients with inflammatory diseases, despite their well-known adverse metabolic effects. Previously, it was understood that the anti-inflammatory effects of the GC/GC receptor (GR) complex were mediated via transrepression, whilst the adverse metabolic effects were mediated via transactivation. It has recently become clear that this "divergent actions" paradigm of GC actions is likely insufficient. It has been reported that the GC/GR-mediated transactivation also contributes to the anti-inflammatory actions of GC, via up-regulation of key anti-inflammatory proteins. One of these is glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), which inhibits inflammatory responses in a number of important immune cell lineages in vitro, as well as in animal models of inflammatory diseases in vivo. This review aims to compare the GILZ and GC effects on specific cell lineages and animal models of inflammatory diseases. The fact that the actions of GILZ permit a GILZ-based gene therapy to lack GC-like adverse effects presents the potential for development of new strategies to treat patients with inflammatory diseases.
    Frontiers in Pharmacology 01/2014; 5:169.

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