Annexin-1 regulates macrophage IL-6 and TNF via glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper.

Centre for Inflammatory Diseases, Department of Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.52). 07/2009; 183(2):1435-45. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.0804000
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Annexin-1 (ANXA1) is a mediator of the anti-inflammatory actions of endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoids (GC). The mechanism of ANXA1 effects on cytokine production in macrophages is unknown and is here investigated in vivo and in vitro. In response to LPS administration, ANXA1(-/-) mice exhibited significantly increased serum IL-6 and TNF compared with wild-type (WT) controls. Similarly, LPS-induced IL-6 and TNF were significantly greater in ANXA1(-/-) than in WT peritoneal macrophages in vitro. In addition, deficiency of ANXA1 was associated with impairment of the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone (DEX) on LPS-induced IL-6 and TNF in macrophages. Increased LPS-induced cytokine expression in the absence of ANXA1 was accompanied by significantly increased LPS-induced activation of ERK and JNK MAPK and was abrogated by inhibition of either of these pathways. No differences in GC effects on MAPK or MAPK phosphatase 1 were observed in ANXA1(-/-) cells. In contrast, GC-induced expression of the regulatory protein GILZ was significantly reduced in ANXA1(-/-) cells by silencing of ANXA1 in WT cells and in macrophages of ANXA1(-/-) mice in vivo. GC-induced GILZ expression and GC inhibition of NF-kappaB activation were restored by expression of ANXA1 in ANXA1(-/-) cells, and GILZ overexpression in ANXA1(-/-) macrophages reduced ERK MAPK phosphorylation and restored sensitivity of cytokine expression and NF-kappaB activation to GC. These data confirm ANXA1 as a key inhibitor of macrophage cytokine expression and identify GILZ as a previously unrecognized mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effects of ANXA1.

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    ABSTRACT: Objective Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) has effects on inflammatory pathways that suggest it to be a key inhibitory regulator of the immune system, and its expression is exquisitely sensitive to induction by glucocorticoids. We undertook this study to test our hypothesis that GILZ deficiency would exacerbate experimental immune-mediated inflammation and impair the effects of glucocorticoids on inflammation and, correspondingly, that exogenous GILZ would inhibit these events. MethodsGILZ−/− mice were generated using the Cre/loxP system, and responses were studied in delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), antigen-induced arthritis (AIA), K/BxN serum–transfer arthritis, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–induced cytokinemia. Therapeutic expression of GILZ via administration of recombinant adeno-associated virus expressing the GILZ gene (GILZ-rAAV) was compared to the effects of glucocorticoid in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). ResultsIncreased T cell proliferation and DTH were observed in GILZ−/− mice, but neither AIA nor K/BxN serum–transfer arthritis was affected, and GILZ deficiency did not affect LPS-induced cytokinemia. Deletion of GILZ did not impair the effects of exogenous glucocorticoids on CIA or cytokinemia. In contrast, overexpression of GILZ in joints significantly inhibited CIA, with an effect similar to that of dexamethasone. Conclusion Despite effects on T cell activation, GILZ deficiency had no effect on effector pathways of arthritis and was unexpectedly redundant with effects of glucocorticoids. These findings do not support the hypothesis that GILZ is central to the actions of glucocorticoids, but the efficacy of exogenous GILZ in CIA suggests that further evaluation of GILZ in inflammatory disease is required.
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