Novel cytomegaloviruses in free-ranging and captive great apes: Phylogenetic evidence for bidirectional horizontal transmission

Research Group Emerging Zoonoses, Robert Koch-Institut, D-13353 Berlin, Germany.
Journal of General Virology (Impact Factor: 3.18). 07/2009; 90(Pt 10):2386-94. DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.011866-0
Source: PubMed


Wild great apes often suffer from diseases of unknown aetiology. This is among the causes of population declines. Because human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important pathogen, especially in immunocompromised individuals, a search for cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) in deceased wild and captive chimpanzees, gorillas and orang-utans was performed. By using a degenerate PCR targeting four conserved genes (UL54-UL57), several distinct, previously unrecognized CMVs were found for each species. Sequences of up to 9 kb were determined for ten novel CMVs, located in the UL54-UL57 block. A phylogenetic tree was inferred for the ten novel CMVs, the previously characterized chimpanzee CMV, HCMV strains and Old World and New World monkey CMVs. The primate CMVs fell into four clades, containing New World monkey, Old World monkey, orang-utan and human CMVs, respectively, plus two clades that each contained both chimpanzee and gorilla isolates (termed CG1 and CG2). The tree loci of the first four clades mirrored those for their respective hosts in the primate tree, suggesting that these CMV lineages arose through cospeciation with host lineages. The CG1 and CG2 loci corresponded to those of the gorilla and chimpanzee hosts, respectively. This was interpreted as indicating that CG1 and CG2 represented CMV lineages that had arisen cospeciationally with the gorilla and chimpanzee lineages, respectively, with subsequent transfer within each clade between the host genera. Divergence dates were estimated and found to be consistent with overall cospeciational development of major primate CMV lineages. However, CMV transmission between chimpanzees and gorillas in both directions has also occurred.

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    • "We also note that this region is directly upstream of SLC23A1, a vitamin C transporter and PAIP2, a repressor of polyadenylate-binding protein PABP1. PAIP2 acts as part of innate defense against cytomegalovirus (CMV) (McKinney et al. 2013), which has been detected in wild gorilla populations (Leendertz et al. 2009). Another region identified (at P < 10 "
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    Molecular Biology and Evolution 12/2014; 32(3). DOI:10.1093/molbev/msu394 · 9.11 Impact Factor
    • "The presence of cross-species transmission and/or recombination between human and ape hepatitis B virus variants [28] and the close genomic similarity of human and ape hepatitis B viruses [29] calls for extensive phylogenetic investigations to understand the diversity, the evolution and the worldwide spread of this virus. Other pathogenic viruses, including adenoviruses [30] (family Adenoviridae), Lymphocryptovirus [31] and cytomegaloviruses [32] (family Herpesviridae), metapneumoviruses [16] [17] [18] (family Paramyxoviridae ), polyomaviruses [33] (family Polyomaviridae) and enteroviruses [34] (family Picornaviridae), are not exclusively human-specific and have also been detected in apes. Moreover, based on phylogenetic analyses, some of these viruses variants found in apes are remarkably closely related to human viruses, indicating the zoonotic potential of primate viruses to spread horizontally into the local human populations [30e34] "
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    • "There are also anecdotal reports of cross-species (zoonotic) infections of humans with simian or baboon CMVs (Huang et al., 1978; Martin et al., 1994; Michaels et al., 2001), but in two of the three cases the source of infection remained enigmatic. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses suggested interspecies transfer of CMVs between chimpanzees and gorillas (Leendertz et al., 2009; see also Chapter II.22). There is also a report of an experimental infection of laboratory mice (Mus musculus) with a field mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) isolate (Raynaud and Barreau, 1965). "
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