The purpose of the present study was to measure and compare permeability coefficients (k(p)) and lag times (tau) in human skin and hairless guinea pig (HGP) skin. Paired experiments employed heat-separated epidermal membranes from human and HGP sources mounted on static in vitro diffusion cells. Infinite-dose, saturated aqueous solutions of 6 industrial chemicals were used as donors: aniline, benzene, 1,2- dichloroethane, diethyl phthalate, naphthalene, and tetrachloroethylene. No significant differences were found between human and HGP skin for either k(p) or tau for any of these chemicals (p >or= .24). HGP vs. human k(p) measurements, and HGP vs. human tau measurements, were highly correlated. For k(p), the slope of the linear correlation was close to unity (1.080 +/- 0.182) and the intercept close to 0 (0.015 +/- 0. 029 cm/h), with a correlation coefficient (r(2)) = 0.898. For tau, the slope was also close to unity (0.818 +/- 0.030) and the intercept close to 0 (-0.014 +/- 0.023 h), with r(2) = 0.994. These results suggest that HGP skin may serve as an excellent surrogate for human skin in in vitro dermal penetration studies.
"Dermal absorption of organic solvents including tetrachloroethylene is well documented (e.g. Frasch and Barbero 2009). For this reason, during the assessment of health risks associated with organic solvents, it is necessary to identify the potential for dermal penetration and the overall contribution of dermal uptake of a substance to the systemic dose. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1-Bromopropane (1-BP; CAS number 106-94-5), also known as n-propyl bromide, is a halogenated short-chain alkane used as an organic solvent with numerous commercial and industrial applications, including garment dry cleaning and vapor degreasing of metals. The purpose of this study was to determine the dermal absorption characteristics and corrosivity of 1-BP. Heat-separated human epidermal membranes were mounted on static diffusion cells. Different exposure scenarios were studied (infinite dose, finite dose, and transient exposure) using neat 1-BP and saturated aqueous solution as donor. Steady-state fluxes for infinite-dose neat 1-BP exposure averaged 625 to 960 μg cm(-2) h(-1). The finite-dose (10 μl/cm(2) = 13.5 mg/cm(2)) unoccluded donor resulted in penetration of <0.2% of the applied dose (22 μg/cm(2)). A 10-min transient exposure to infinite dose resulted in total penetration of 179 μg/cm(2). Steady-state 1-BP fluxes from neat application of a commercial dry cleaning solvent were similar (441 to 722 μg cm(-2) h(-1)). The permeability coefficient of 1-BP in water vehicle was 0.257 ± 0.141 cm/h. The absorption potential of 1-BP following dermal exposure is dependent upon the type and duration of exposure. Donor losses due to evaporation were approximately 500-fold greater than dermal absorption flux; evaporation flux was 420 mg cm(-2) h(-1). 1-BP is cytotoxic but not corrosive, based on results from a cultured reconstructed human epidermal model (EpiDerm Skin Corrosivity Test).
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 10/2011; 74(19):1249-60. DOI:10.1080/15287394.2011.595666 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nerve agent VX is most likely to enter the body via liquid contamination of the skin. After percutaneous exposure, the slow uptake into the blood, and its slow elimination result in toxic levels in plasma for a period of several hours. Consequently, this has implications for the development of toxic signs and for treatment onset. In the present study, clinical signs, toxicokinetics and effects on respiration, electroencephalogram and heart rate were investigated in hairless guinea pigs after percutaneous exposure to 500 microg/kg VX. We found that full inhibition of AChE and partial inhibition of BuChE in blood were accompanied by the onset of clinical signs, reflected by a decline in respiratory minute volume, bronchoconstriction and a decrease in heart rate. Furthermore, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of a single dose of atropine, obidoxime and diazepam, administered at appearance of first clinical signs, versus that of repetitive dosing of these drugs on the reappearance of signs. A single shot treatment extended the period to detrimental physiological decline and death for several hours, whereas repetitive administration remained effective as long as treatment was continued. In conclusion, percutaneous VX poisoning showed to be effectively treatable when diagnosed on time and when continued over the entire period of time during which VX, in case of ineffective decontamination, penetrates the skin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is growing emphasis in the United States and Europe regarding the quantification of dermal exposures to chemical mixtures and other substances. In this paper, we determine the dermal flux of benzene in neat form, in organic solvents, and in aqueous solutions based on a critical review and analysis of the published literature, and discuss appropriate applications for using benzene dermal absorption data in occupational risk assessment. As part of this effort, we synthesize and analyze data for 77 experimental results taken from 16 studies of benzene skin absorption. We also assess the chemical activity of benzene in simple hydrocarbon solvent mixtures using a thermodynamic modeling software tool. Based on the collective human in vivo, human in vitro, and animal in vitro data sets, we find that the steady-state dermal flux for neat benzene (and benzene-saturated aqueous solutions) ranges from 0.2 to 0.4 mg/(cm²·h). Observed outlier values for some of the animal in vivo data sets are possibly due to the use of test species that have more permeable skin than humans or study conditions that resulted in damage to the skin barrier. Because relatively few dermal absorption studies have been conducted on benzene-containing organic solvents, and available test results may be influenced by study design or vehicle effects, it is not possible to use these data to quantify the dermal flux of benzene for other types of solvent mixtures. However, depending on the application, we describe several potential approaches that can be used to derive a rough approximation of the steady-state benzene dermal flux for these mixtures. Important limitations with respect to quantifying and evaluating the significance of dermal exposures to benzene in occupational settings include a lack of data on (1) factors that affect the dermal uptake of benzene, (2) the dermal flux of benzene for different organic solvent mixtures, (3) meaningful metrics for evaluating the dermal uptake of benzene, (4) steady-state versus non-steady-state dermal flux values for benzene, (5) the effect of skin damage on the dermal flux of benzene, (6) standardized test methods for estimating the dermal flux of benzene, and (7) robust estimates of the evaporation rate of benzene from different liquid vehicles.
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