Lutein accumulation in the absence of zeaxanthin restores nonphotochemical quenching in the Arabidopsis thaliana npq1 mutant.

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-3102, USA.
The Plant Cell (Impact Factor: 9.25). 07/2009; 21(6):1798-812. DOI: 10.1105/tpc.109.066571
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Plants protect themselves from excess absorbed light energy through thermal dissipation, which is measured as nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence (NPQ). The major component of NPQ, qE, is induced by high transthylakoid DeltapH in excess light and depends on the xanthophyll cycle, in which violaxanthin and antheraxanthin are deepoxidized to form zeaxanthin. To investigate the xanthophyll dependence of qE, we identified suppressor of zeaxanthin-less1 (szl1) as a suppressor of the Arabidopsis thaliana npq1 mutant, which lacks zeaxanthin. szl1 npq1 plants have a partially restored qE but lack zeaxanthin and have low levels of violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and neoxanthin. However, they accumulate more lutein and alpha-carotene than the wild type. szl1 contains a point mutation in the lycopene beta-cyclase (LCYB) gene. Based on the pigment analysis, LCYB appears to be the major lycopene beta-cyclase and is not involved in neoxanthin synthesis. The Lhcb4 (CP29) and Lhcb5 (CP26) protein levels are reduced by 50% in szl1 npq1 relative to the wild type, whereas other Lhcb proteins are present at wild-type levels. Analysis of carotenoid radical cation formation and leaf absorbance changes strongly suggest that the higher amount of lutein substitutes for zeaxanthin in qE, implying a direct role in qE, as well as a mechanism that is weakly sensitive to carotenoid structural properties.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Carotenes and their oxygenated derivatives, the xanthophylls, are structural determinants in both photosystems (PS) I and II. They bind and stabilize photosynthetic complexes, increase the light-harvesting capacity of chlorophyll-binding proteins, and have a major role in chloroplast photoprotection. Localization of carotenoid species within each PS is highly conserved: Core complexes bind carotenes, whereas peripheral light-harvesting systems bind xanthophylls. The specific functional role of each xanthophyll species has been recently described by genetic dissection, however the in vivo role of carotenes has not been similarly defined. Here, we have analyzed the function of carotenes in photosynthesis and photoprotection, distinct from that of xanthophylls, by characterizing the suppressor of zeaxanthin-less (szl) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) which, due to the decreased activity of the lycopene-β-cyclase, shows a lower carotene content than wild-type plants. When grown at room temperature, mutant plants showed a lower content in PSI light-harvesting complex I complex than the wild type, and a reduced capacity for chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, the rapidly reversible component of nonphotochemical quenching. When exposed to high light at chilling temperature, szl1 plants showed stronger photoxidation than wild-type plants. Both PSI and PSII from szl1 were similarly depleted in carotenes and yet PSI activity was more sensitive to light stress than PSII as shown by the stronger photoinhibition of PSI and increased rate of singlet oxygen release from isolated PSI light-harvesting complex I complexes of szl1 compared with the wild type. We conclude that carotene depletion in the core complexes impairs photoprotection of both PS under high light at chilling temperature, with PSI being far more affected than PSII.
    Plant physiology 06/2012; 159(4):1745-58. · 6.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This is a tale of a career in plant physiological ecology that enjoyed the freedom to address photosynthetic physiology and biochemistry in leaves of plants from diverse environments. It was supported by block funding (now sadly a thing of the past) for research at the Australian National University, by grants during appointments in the United States and in Germany, and by Columbia University. It became a "career experiment" in which long-term, high-trust support for curiosity-driven plant biology in Australia, and at times in the United States, led to surprisingly innovative results. Although the rich diversity of short-term competitive grant opportunities in the United States sustained ongoing research, it proved difficult to mobilize support for more risky long-term projects. A decade after the closure of the Biosphere 2 Laboratory, this article highlights the achievements of colleagues in experimental climate change research from 1998 to 2003.
    Annual Review of Plant Biology 04/2014; 65:1-32. · 18.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Under high-irradiance conditions, plants must efficiently protect photosystem II (PSII) from damage. In this study, we demonstrate that the chloroplast protein HYPERSENSITIVE TO HIGH LIGHT1 (HHL1) is expressed in response to high light and functions in protecting PSII against photodamage. Arabidopsis thaliana hhl1 mutants show hypersensitivity to high light, drastically decreased PSII photosynthetic activity, higher nonphotochemical quenching activity, a faster xanthophyll cycle, and increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species following high-light exposure. Moreover, HHL1 deficiency accelerated the degradation of PSII core subunits under high light, decreasing the accumulation of PSII core subunits and PSII-light-harvesting complex II supercomplex. HHL1 primarily localizes in the stroma-exposed thylakoid membranes and associates with the PSII core monomer complex through direct interaction with PSII core proteins CP43 and CP47. Interestingly, HHL1 also directly interacts, in vivo and in vitro, with LOW QUANTUM YIELD OF PHOTOSYSTEM II1 (LQY1), which functions in the repair and reassembly of PSII. Furthermore, the hhl1 lqy1 double mutants show increased photosensitivity compared with single mutants. Taken together, these results suggest that HHL1 forms a complex with LQY1 and participates in photodamage repair of PSII under high light.
    The Plant Cell 03/2014; · 9.25 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 22, 2014