Small pancreatic and periampullary neuroendocrine tumors: resect or enucleate?

Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5124, USA.
Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.39). 06/2009; 13(9):1692-8. DOI: 10.1007/s11605-009-0946-z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of enucleation versus resection in patients with small pancreatic, ampullary, and duodenal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs).
Multi-institutional retrospective review identified all patients with pancreatic and peri-pancreatic NETs who underwent surgery from January 1990 to October 2008. Patients with tumors < or =3 cm and without nodal or metastatic disease were included.
Of the 271 patients identified, 122 (45%) met the inclusion criteria and had either an enucleation (n = 37) and/or a resection (n = 87). Enucleated tumors were more likely to be in the pancreatic head (P = 0.003) or functioning (P < 0.0001) and, when applicable, less likely to result in splenectomy (P = 0.0003). The rate of pancreatic fistula formation was higher after enucleation (P < 0.01), but the fistula severity tended to be worse following resection (P = 0.07). The enucleation and resection patients had similar operative times, blood loss, overall morbidity, mortality, hospital stay, and 5-year survival. However, for pancreatic head tumors, enucleation resulted in decreased blood loss, operative time, and length of stay compared to pancreaticoduodenectomy (P < 0.05).
These data suggest that most outcomes of enucleation and resection for small pancreatic and peri-pancreatic NETs are comparable. However, enucleation has better outcomes than pancreaticoduodenectomy for head lesions and the advantage of preserving splenic function for tail lesions.

1 Follower
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are relatively rare tumors comprising 1-2% of all pancreas neoplasms. In the last 10 years our understanding of this disease has increased dramatically allowing for advancements in the treatment of pNETs. Surgical excision remains the primary therapy for localized tumors and only potential for cure. New surgical techniques using laparoscopic approaches to complex pancreatic resections are a major advancement in surgical therapy and increasingly possible. With early detection being less common, most patients present with metastatic disease. Management of these patients requires multidisciplinary care combining the best of surgery, chemotherapy and other targeted therapies. In addition to surgical advances, recently, there have been significant advances in systemic therapy and targeted molecular therapy.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Resection for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNET) is suggested to be associated with an increased risk of a post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF). The aim of this study was to describe morbidity after resections for PNET, focusing on POPF. Outcomes were compared with resections for other lesions.Methods Patients undergoing an elective pancreatic resection during a 12-year period were retrospectively analysed. Morbidity was defined according to the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definitions.ResultsEighty-eight out of 832 patients (10.6%) underwent a resection for PNET. Atypical pancreatic resections (enucleation and central pancreatectomy) and distal pancreatectomies were more frequently performed for PNET. The POPF rate was 22.7% in patients operated for PNET compared with 17.2% in other patients (P = 0.200). In univariate analysis, body mass index (BMI), pancreatic duct diameter, somatostatin analogue administration, type of resection and type of pathology were associated with a POPF. In multivariate analysis, BMI, a pancreatic duct diameter <3 mm and central pancreatectomy remained independent risk factors [odds ratio (OR) 1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22–3.07 and OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.05–8.82, respectively].Conclusions High rates of POPF were found in patients operated for PNET. However, this was mainly owing to the fact that atypical resections, known to be associated with a higher fistula rate, were performed more frequently in these patients.
    HPB 08/2014; 17(1). DOI:10.1111/hpb.12319 · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The application of minimally invasive approaches to pancreatic resection for benign and malignant diseases has been growing in the last two decades. Studies have demonstrated that laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) is feasible and safe, and many of them show that compared to open distal pancreatectomy, LDP has decreased blood loss and length of hospital stay, and equivalent post-operative complication rates and short-term oncologic outcomes. LDP is becoming the procedure of choice for benign or small low-grade malignant lesions in the distal pancreas. Minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (MIPD) has not yet been widely adopted. There is no clear evidence in favor of MIPD over open pancreaticoduodenectomy in operative time, blood loss, length of stay or rate of complications. Robotic surgery has recently been applied to pancreatectomy, and many of the advantages of laparoscopy over open surgery have been observed in robotic surgery. Laparoscopic enucleation is considered safe for patients with small, benign or low-grade malignant lesions of the pancreas that is amenable to parenchyma-preserving procedure. As surgeons' experience with advanced laparoscopic and robotic skills has been growing around the world, new innovations and breakthrough in minimally invasive pancreatic procedures will evolve.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2014; 20(39):14246-14254. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i39.14246 · 2.43 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 15, 2014