The role of calcium, magnesium, and zinc in pre-eclampsia.
ABSTRACT Pre-eclampsia is the most common medical complication of pregnancy associated with increased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Its exact etiology is not known, although several evidences indicate that various elements might play an important role in pre-eclampsia. This study was carried out to analyze and to compare the concentration of calcium, magnesium, and zinc in the serum of women with pre-eclampsia and in normal pregnant women. Fifty clinically diagnosed patients with pre-eclampsia (25 with mild and 25 with severe pre-eclampsia) and 50 normal pregnant controls were enrolled in this study. The serum calcium, magnesium, and zinc levels were estimated with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean serum levels of calcium, magnesium, and zinc in normal pregnant group were 2.45 +/- 0.18 mmol/L, 0.79 +/- 0.13 mmol/L, and 15.64 +/- 2.4 micromol/L, respectively, while in mild pre-eclamptic group, these were 2.12 +/- 0.15 mmol/L, 0.67 +/- 0.14 mmol/L, and 12.72 +/- 1.7 micromol/L, respectively. Serum levels in severe pre-eclamptic group were 1.94 +/- 0.09 mmol/L, 0.62 +/- 0.11 mmol/L, and 12.04 +/- 1.4 micromol/L, respectively. These results indicate that reduction in serum levels of calcium, magnesium, and zinc during pregnancy might be possible contributors in etiology of pre-eclampsia, and supplementation of these elements to diet may be of value to prevent pre-eclampsia.
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ABSTRACT: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are one of the common causes for perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Pre-eclampsia is a condition which typically occurs after 20 weeks of gestation and has high blood pressure as the main contributing factor. The aim was to study the effects of pre-eclampsia on the mother and the fetus in rural South Indian population. This was a descriptive study conducted in a secondary level hospital in rural South India. A total of 1900 antenatal women were screened for pre-eclampsia during the period August 2010 to July 2011 to study the effects on the mother and fetus. Of the 1900 women screened 93 were detected with pre-eclampsia in the study. Among these, 46.23% were primigravida, 30.1% belonged to socio-economic class 4 and 48.8% were among those with BMI 26-30. The incidence of severe pre-eclampsia was higher in the unregistered women. The most common maternal complication was antepartum hemorrhage (13.9%) and the most common neonatal complication was prematurity (23.65%). Treating anemia and improving socioeconomic status will improve maternal and neonatal outcome in pre-eclampsia. Antenatal care and educating women on significance of symptoms will markedly improve perinatal morbidity and mortality. Prematurity, growth restriction and low birth weight are neonatal complications to be anticipated and dealt with when the mother has pre-eclampsia. A good neonatal intensive care unit will help improve neonatal outcomes.Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care 04/2015; 4(2):257. DOI:10.4103/2249-4863.154669
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ABSTRACT: Pre-eclampsia or Eclampsia (PE or E) accounts for 25% of cases of maternal mortality worldwide. There is some evidence of a link to dietary factors, but few studies have explored this association in developing countries, where the majority of the burden falls. We examined the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E in Indian women. Cross-sectional data from India's third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-06) was used for this study. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PE or E during pregnancy were obtained from 39,657 women aged 15-49 years who had had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E after adjusting for maternal, health and lifestyle factors, and socio-demographic characteristics of the mother. In their most recent pregnancy, 1.2% (n=456) of the study sample experienced symptoms suggestive of PE or E. Mothers who consumed an adequately diversified diet were 34% less likely (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.51-0.87) to report PE or E symptoms than mothers with inadequately diversified dietary intake. The likelihood of reporting PE or E symptoms was also 36% lower (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88) among those mothers who consumed iron and folic acid supplementation for at least 90 days during their last pregnancy. As a sensitivity analysis, we stratified our models sequentially by education, wealth, antenatal care visits, birth interval, and parity. Our results remained largely unchanged: both adequately diversified dietary intake and iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were associated with a reduced occurrence of PE or E symptoms. Having a adequately diversified dietary intake and iron and folic acid supplementation in pregnancy was associated with a reduced occurrence of symptoms suggestive of PE or E in Indian women.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(3):e0119120. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119120 · 3.53 Impact Factor
Article: Author's reply.Indoor Air 06/2015; 25(3):354-5. DOI:10.1111/ina.12169 · 4.20 Impact Factor