The role of calcium, magnesium, and zinc in pre-eclampsia.
ABSTRACT Pre-eclampsia is the most common medical complication of pregnancy associated with increased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Its exact etiology is not known, although several evidences indicate that various elements might play an important role in pre-eclampsia. This study was carried out to analyze and to compare the concentration of calcium, magnesium, and zinc in the serum of women with pre-eclampsia and in normal pregnant women. Fifty clinically diagnosed patients with pre-eclampsia (25 with mild and 25 with severe pre-eclampsia) and 50 normal pregnant controls were enrolled in this study. The serum calcium, magnesium, and zinc levels were estimated with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean serum levels of calcium, magnesium, and zinc in normal pregnant group were 2.45 +/- 0.18 mmol/L, 0.79 +/- 0.13 mmol/L, and 15.64 +/- 2.4 micromol/L, respectively, while in mild pre-eclamptic group, these were 2.12 +/- 0.15 mmol/L, 0.67 +/- 0.14 mmol/L, and 12.72 +/- 1.7 micromol/L, respectively. Serum levels in severe pre-eclamptic group were 1.94 +/- 0.09 mmol/L, 0.62 +/- 0.11 mmol/L, and 12.04 +/- 1.4 micromol/L, respectively. These results indicate that reduction in serum levels of calcium, magnesium, and zinc during pregnancy might be possible contributors in etiology of pre-eclampsia, and supplementation of these elements to diet may be of value to prevent pre-eclampsia.
SourceAvailable from: Sutapa Agrawal[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pre-eclampsia or Eclampsia (PE or E) accounts for 25% of cases of maternal mortality worldwide. There is some evidence of a link to dietary factors, but few studies have explored this association in developing countries, where the majority of the burden falls. We examined the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E in Indian women. Cross-sectional data from India's third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-06) was used for this study. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PE or E during pregnancy were obtained from 39,657 women aged 15-49 years who had had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E after adjusting for maternal, health and lifestyle factors, and socio-demographic characteristics of the mother. In their most recent pregnancy, 1.2% (n=456) of the study sample experienced symptoms suggestive of PE or E. Mothers who consumed an adequately diversified diet were 34% less likely (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.51-0.87) to report PE or E symptoms than mothers with inadequately diversified dietary intake. The likelihood of reporting PE or E symptoms was also 36% lower (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88) among those mothers who consumed iron and folic acid supplementation for at least 90 days during their last pregnancy. As a sensitivity analysis, we stratified our models sequentially by education, wealth, antenatal care visits, birth interval, and parity. Our results remained largely unchanged: both adequately diversified dietary intake and iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were associated with a reduced occurrence of PE or E symptoms. Having a adequately diversified dietary intake and iron and folic acid supplementation in pregnancy was associated with a reduced occurrence of symptoms suggestive of PE or E in Indian women.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(3):e0119120. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119120 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Preeclampsia/eclampsia is responsible for upwards of 20% of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Objective: We examined the relationship between frequency of food intake and symptoms of preeclampsia and eclampsia among Indian women aged 15-49 (n = 39,657) for the most recent live birth in the 5 years preceding the National Family Health Survey-3 (2005-2006). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between frequency of intake of specific food items, and self-reported symptoms of preeclampsia and eclampsia, adjusting for maternal age, and other potential socio-demographic confounders. Results: Daily consumption of milk or curd (odds ratio [OR]: 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81-0.96), green leafy vegetables, chicken/meat and weekly pulses/beans consumption are associated with substantially lower risk of preeclampsia. Eclampsia risk is higher among those who consumed fruits (ORs ranges from 1.18 to 1.44) and chicken/meat occasionally (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.11-1.48), and lower among those consuming vegetables daily. Conclusion: Frequency of consumption of specific food items is associated with occurrence of preeclampsia and eclampsia symptoms in Indian women.10/2014; 4(4):350-353. DOI:10.4103/2230-8598.144062
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ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy without any specific reasons that characterized by high blood pressure and large amounts of protein in the urine. This disorder is caused by multiple factors and finding any factor related to this disorder can help on time prevention of this disease. In this study, serum levels of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) were evaluated in preeclampsia women and compared to normotensive ones. This was a case-control study on 40 normotensive pregnancies as controls, 20 mild and 20 severe preeclamptic pregnancies as case groups. The women were studied in their 28-40 weeks of pregnancy. Simple random sampling was done based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and data were collected by blood sampling. The serum Ca levels of 4.96±0.62, 4.89±0.34, 5.05±0.35 mg/dL, Mg levels of 0.83±0.08, 0.85±0.11, 0.84±0.11 mg/dL and Zn levels of 107.55±22.74, 108.00±22.40, 107.50±22.30 mg/dL was detected in normotensive, mild and severe preeclampsia, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that there were no significant differences between three groups in serum levels of Ca (p=0.6), Mg (p=0.827) and Zn (p=0.997). The findings of this study showed that the assessment of serum Ca, Mg and Zn levels does not have any clinical values for predicting and/or managing of preeclampsia. However, based on the positive relationship between serum Ca and Mg concentration and the severity of preeclampsia in this study, we recommend assessment of serum levels of these two mineral elements as indices of the severity of preeclampsia.Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine 01/2015; 13(1):23-6. · 0.19 Impact Factor