The role of calcium, magnesium, and zinc in pre-eclampsia.
ABSTRACT Pre-eclampsia is the most common medical complication of pregnancy associated with increased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Its exact etiology is not known, although several evidences indicate that various elements might play an important role in pre-eclampsia. This study was carried out to analyze and to compare the concentration of calcium, magnesium, and zinc in the serum of women with pre-eclampsia and in normal pregnant women. Fifty clinically diagnosed patients with pre-eclampsia (25 with mild and 25 with severe pre-eclampsia) and 50 normal pregnant controls were enrolled in this study. The serum calcium, magnesium, and zinc levels were estimated with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean serum levels of calcium, magnesium, and zinc in normal pregnant group were 2.45 +/- 0.18 mmol/L, 0.79 +/- 0.13 mmol/L, and 15.64 +/- 2.4 micromol/L, respectively, while in mild pre-eclamptic group, these were 2.12 +/- 0.15 mmol/L, 0.67 +/- 0.14 mmol/L, and 12.72 +/- 1.7 micromol/L, respectively. Serum levels in severe pre-eclamptic group were 1.94 +/- 0.09 mmol/L, 0.62 +/- 0.11 mmol/L, and 12.04 +/- 1.4 micromol/L, respectively. These results indicate that reduction in serum levels of calcium, magnesium, and zinc during pregnancy might be possible contributors in etiology of pre-eclampsia, and supplementation of these elements to diet may be of value to prevent pre-eclampsia.
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ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia complicates 2–8 % of all pregnancies and it is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and pre-term delivery in the world. Unfortunately, there is scarcity of document discussing the circulating level of several essential trace elements in preeclampsia patients in Bangladesh. The present study was designed to evaluate the serum concentration of four trace elements, namely zinc, copper, manganese, and iron, in preeclamptic pregnant women. The study was conducted as a case–control study with 50 preeclamptic pregnant women as cases and 58 normotensive pregnant women as controls. Obstetric, anthropometric, and clinical data were collected at routine obstetric visits. Serum trace elements were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Independent sample t test and Pearson’s cor-relation test were done for the statistical analysis using the statistical software package SPSS, version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). We observed significant differences for gesta-tional age, body mass index, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure between patient and control groups (p<0.05). Analysis of serum trace elements explored significantly lower level of all the four elements in preeclampsia patients in comparison to the control group (p<0.05). Pearson’s correlation analysis explored that the correlation between serum level of different trace elements was statistically in-significant (p>0.05) except the correlation between zinc and iron in preeclampsia patients (p<0.05). Establishment of inter-element relationship strongly supports that there was a disturbance in the element homeostasis in patient with preeclampsia. In conclusion, our study suggests that preeclampsia patients have considerably lower level of serum zinc, copper, manganese, and iron compared to the healthy pregnant women.Biological trace element research 06/2013; · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Preeclampsia is a complex syndrome of unknown aetiologic origin. It is characterized by the clinical triad of hypertension, edema and protenuria. Current concepts of the genesis of preeclampsia include endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Objective: This study assessed the relationship between the activity of superoxide dismutase, the zincemia and the preeclampsia. Methods: A case-control study was carried out with 94 women, age between 17 and 44 years, which were divided in two groups: women with preeclampsia (n = 44) and control group women with normal pregnancy (n = 50). The activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme was determined according to Ransod kit. Zinc concentrations in plasma and erythrocytes were determined using the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique, both determined before delivery and during puerperium. Student's t-test and the paired t-test were used for statistical analysis, and significance was established at p < 0.05. Results: The study revealed plasma hypozincemia more pronounced in women with severe preeclampsia (p < 0.05). This behavior was not observed in erythrocytes, whose concentrations remained stable, before delivery and puerperium in women with preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. The antioxidant activity of the enzyme superoxide dismutase was found elevated in women with and without preeclampsia (p>0.05), with significant reduction in activity in the postpartum period (p < 0.05) in both groups studied (p>0.05). Conclusions: This study shows there are alterations in biochemical parameters of zinc in women with preeclampsia. The activity of superoxide dismutase shows that this marker cannot be used to predict the evolution of the disease.Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 04/2013; 28(2):486-490. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia complicates 2-8% of all pregnancies and is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and pre-term delivery in world. In concern to the increasing number of preeclamptic cases and lack of data about the interrelation between levels of trace elements and preeclampsia, we conducted a hospital based case-control study to assess the risk of preeclampsia in relation to concentrations of trace elements like copper, manganese and zinc in a hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study consisted of 120 pregnant women divided into three groups of 40 each - control, HR group and the PET group. The serum levels of Cu, Mn and Zn were estimated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Analysis of trace elements revealed that mean values of Cu, Mn and Zn were 2.01 ± 0.43, 0.125 ± 0.07 and 1.30 ± 0.83 mg/L respectively in control. In preeclamptic group, the mean values of Cu, Mn and Zn were 1.554 ± 0.53, 0.072 ± 0.06 and 0.67 ± 0.59 mg/L respectively. Levels of Cu and Zn were found to decrease significantly (P < 0.001) in preeclamptic group compared to control. Pearsons correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between levels of Cu, Mn and Zn and systolic blood pressure. However the correlation of Cu, Mn and Zn with maternal age, gestational age, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was statistically insignificant. In conclusion, our study suggests that preeclamptic patients have considerably lower levels of Cu, Mn and Zn compared to control and reduction in serum levels of copper, manganese, and zinc during pregnancy might be possible contributors in etiology of preeclampsia.International journal of clinical and experimental pathology. 01/2014; 7(5):1900-10.