The role of calcium, magnesium, and zinc in pre-eclampsia.

S.N. Medical College, Agra, India.
Biological trace element research (Impact Factor: 1.92). 07/2009; 133(2):162-70. DOI: 10.1007/s12011-009-8423-9
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pre-eclampsia is the most common medical complication of pregnancy associated with increased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Its exact etiology is not known, although several evidences indicate that various elements might play an important role in pre-eclampsia. This study was carried out to analyze and to compare the concentration of calcium, magnesium, and zinc in the serum of women with pre-eclampsia and in normal pregnant women. Fifty clinically diagnosed patients with pre-eclampsia (25 with mild and 25 with severe pre-eclampsia) and 50 normal pregnant controls were enrolled in this study. The serum calcium, magnesium, and zinc levels were estimated with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean serum levels of calcium, magnesium, and zinc in normal pregnant group were 2.45 +/- 0.18 mmol/L, 0.79 +/- 0.13 mmol/L, and 15.64 +/- 2.4 micromol/L, respectively, while in mild pre-eclamptic group, these were 2.12 +/- 0.15 mmol/L, 0.67 +/- 0.14 mmol/L, and 12.72 +/- 1.7 micromol/L, respectively. Serum levels in severe pre-eclamptic group were 1.94 +/- 0.09 mmol/L, 0.62 +/- 0.11 mmol/L, and 12.04 +/- 1.4 micromol/L, respectively. These results indicate that reduction in serum levels of calcium, magnesium, and zinc during pregnancy might be possible contributors in etiology of pre-eclampsia, and supplementation of these elements to diet may be of value to prevent pre-eclampsia.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia complicates 2–8 % of all pregnancies and it is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and pre-term delivery in the world. Unfortunately, there is scarcity of document discussing the circulating level of several essential trace elements in preeclampsia patients in Bangladesh. The present study was designed to evaluate the serum concentration of four trace elements, namely zinc, copper, manganese, and iron, in preeclamptic pregnant women. The study was conducted as a case–control study with 50 preeclamptic pregnant women as cases and 58 normotensive pregnant women as controls. Obstetric, anthropometric, and clinical data were collected at routine obstetric visits. Serum trace elements were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Independent sample t test and Pearson’s cor-relation test were done for the statistical analysis using the statistical software package SPSS, version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). We observed significant differences for gesta-tional age, body mass index, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure between patient and control groups (p<0.05). Analysis of serum trace elements explored significantly lower level of all the four elements in preeclampsia patients in comparison to the control group (p<0.05). Pearson’s correlation analysis explored that the correlation between serum level of different trace elements was statistically in-significant (p>0.05) except the correlation between zinc and iron in preeclampsia patients (p<0.05). Establishment of inter-element relationship strongly supports that there was a disturbance in the element homeostasis in patient with preeclampsia. In conclusion, our study suggests that preeclampsia patients have considerably lower level of serum zinc, copper, manganese, and iron compared to the healthy pregnant women.
    Biological trace element research 06/2013; · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy multisystem disorder of unknown etiology. It is a significant cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Due to the significant role of magnesium in physiological regulation of blood pressure, this study was conducted to measure the level of magnesium in pre-eclampsia and control groups since the beginning of the pregnancy. We enrolled 500 pregnant women with gestational age of 18-22 weeks who had referred to the Section of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Hafez hospital of Shiraz. Initially, blood samples were obtained from all subjects. 26 cases with diagnosis of preeclampsia were detected at the next referral. For each case, two normal pregnant women, at the same gestational age, were considered as the control group. The second blood samples were obtained from all the cases and controls. All of the samples were sent to check the level of magnesium. The data was analyzed with the SPSS and Student's t-test. The initial level of magnesium in pre-eclampsia women was not only significantly less than the control group (1.81 ± 0.25 mg/dl vs. 2.3 ± 0.44 mg/dl, P < 0.001), but also the secondary level was low, when the diagnosis was confirmed (1.72 ± 0.38 mg/dl vs. 2.2 ± 0.63 mg/dl, P < 0.05). We found a gradual decrease in mean serum magnesium level with increasing period of gestation in the pre-eclampsia women. This implicates that the level of magnesium in preeclampsia was lower than the control group since the beginning of pregnancy. According to our results, checking the level of magnesium should be considered as the predicting factor of preeclampsia during the first evaluation of pregnancy.
    Iranian Red Crescent medical journal. 12/2013; 15(12):e10394.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine expression profile of magnesium responsive genes (MRGs) in placentas of normoevolutive and preeclamptic women. Methods: The expression profiles of MRGs were determined in placentas of normoevolutive (N = 26) and preeclamptic (N = 25) women by RT-qPCR. Results: Among all tested MRGs (9) only SLC41A1 (encoding for Na(+)/Mg(2+) exchanger) was significantly overexpressed in ∼54.2% of preeclamptic (n = 24) and in ∼9.5% of normoevolutive (n = 21) specimens. On average, SLC41A1 was overexpressed sixfold in the preeclamptic group. Presence of SLC41A1 in placentas was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Conclusion. SLC41A1 is significantly overexpressed in nearly 55% of preeclamptic placentas. This may indicate a direct contribution of changed Mg homeostasis in the development of preeclampsia.
    Hypertension in Pregnancy 07/2013; · 0.93 Impact Factor