KRAS mutation testing in colorectal cancer.
ABSTRACT In the US, colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Approximately 20% of patients present with metastatic disease, and an additional 30% to 40% develop metastasis during the course of their disease. Patients with metastatic colon cancer have a 5-year survival rate of only 11%. Although surgery is the mainstay of treatment for early stage colon cancer, adjuvant treatment is usually used in patients advanced stage disease. In particular, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapies have emerged as effective treatments in a subset of patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Two anti-EGFR biologics, cetuximab and panitumumab, have been approved by the Food and Drug Administrations for the treatment of refractory metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Mounting evidence has shown that these therapies are ineffective in tumors with mutations of codons 12 and 13 of exon 2 of the KRAS gene. Because of this compelling data, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and the American Society of Clinical Oncology have recommended determination of KRAS mutation status in all patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who are candidates for anti-EGFR therapy. Anatomic pathologists play an integral role in coordinating the testing for KRAS mutations, as this assay is performed on tissue samples selected by the pathologist. Herein, the authors present an up-to-date review of the biologic, clinical, and laboratory aspects of KRAS mutation testing in colorectal cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Background:KRAS mutations have been associated with lung metastases at diagnosis of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), but the impact of this mutation on subsequent development of lung metastasis is unknown. We investigated KRAS mutation as a predictor of lung metastasis development.Methods:We retrospectively evaluated data from patients with mCRC whose tumour was tested for KRAS mutation from 2008 to 2010. The relationships of KRAS mutational status with time-to-lung metastasis (TTLM) and overall survival (OS) were analysed.Results:Of the 494 patients identified, 202 (41%) had tumours with KRAS mutation. KRAS mutations were associated with a shorter TTLM (median 15.2 vs 22.4 months; hazard ratio=1.40; P=0.002) and a two-fold greater odds of developing lung metastases during the disease course in patients with liver-limited mCRC at diagnosis (72 vs 56%, P=0.007). Overall survival did not differ by KRAS status.Conclusions:Lung metastasis was more likely to develop during the disease course in patients whose tumour had a KRAS mutation than in those whose tumour did not have a KRAS mutation. This finding may have an impact on decision making for surgical resection of metastatic disease.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 23 December 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.619 www.bjcancer.com.British Journal of Cancer 12/2014; 112(3). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2014.619 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genetic alterations can determine the natural history of cancer and its treatment response. With further advances in DNA sequencing technology, multiple novel genetic alterations will be discovered which could be exploited as prognostic, predictive and pharmacodynamic biomarkers in the development and use of cancer therapeutics. As such, the importance in clinical practice of efficient and robust somatic mutation testing in solid tumours cannot be overemphasized in the current era of personalized medicine. However, significant challenges remain regarding the testing of genetic biomarkers in clinical practice. Reliance on archived formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tumour, obtained from diagnostic biopsies, for testing somatic genetic alterations could restrict the scientific community in asking relevant questions about a patient's cancer biology. Problems inherent with using formalin fixed, archival tissue are well recognized and difficult to resolve. It could be argued that to achieve rapid and efficient incorporation of genetic biomarkers into clinical practice, somatic mutation testing in cancer patients should be simpler, less invasive using a readily available clinical sample, whilst maintaining robustness and reproducibility. In this regard, use of circulating free DNA (cfDNA) from plasma or serum as an alternative and/or additional source of DNA to test cancer specific genetic alterations is an attractive proposition. In light of encouraging results from recent studies, this mini review will discuss the current role and future potential of somatic mutation testing from circulating or cell free DNA derived from the blood of patients with solid tumours.12/2010; 4(1-4):11-21. DOI:10.1007/s11568-011-9149-2
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ABSTRACT: In a total of 83 UN specimens were investigated for proto-oncogene mutations, tumor supressor genes promoter methylation status and c-myc and Ki-67 expression. Point mutations in c-myc were detected in cases with high grade and proliferation index. Mutated K-ras proto-onco-gene profiles were detected in 17 (21%) tumoral spiecemens that examined. Tumor specimens were also showed hypermethylated promoter domain for the SFRP2, MGMT tumor supressor genes. These findings showed the combine ef-fect of mutated c-myc and K-ras oncogene and epigenetic inactivation of tissue specific tumor supressor genes (TS) play a crucial role in tu-mor progression and recurrence in UN car-cinogenesis.