Potent activity of a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine, against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in a model using human peripheral blood mononuclear cell-transplanted NOD/SCID Janus kinase 3 knockout mice.
ABSTRACT 4'-Ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA), a recently discovered nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, exhibits activity against a wide spectrum of wild-type and multidrug-resistant clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates (50% effective concentration, 0.0001 to 0.001 microM). In the present study, we used human peripheral blood mononuclear cell-transplanted, HIV-1-infected NOD/SCID/Janus kinase 3 knockout mice for in vivo evaluation of the anti-HIV activity of EFdA. Administration of EFdA decreased the replication and cytopathic effects of HIV-1 without identifiable adverse effects. In phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated mice, the CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio in the spleen was low (median, 0.04; range, 0.02 to 0.49), while that in mice receiving EFdA was increased (median, 0.65; range, 0.57 to 1.43). EFdA treatment significantly suppressed the amount of HIV-1 RNA (median of 9.0 x 10(2) copies/ml [range, 8.1 x 10(2) to 1.1 x 10(3) copies/ml] versus median of 9.9 x 10(4) copies/ml [range, 8.1 x 10(2) to 1.1 x 10(3) copies/ml]; P < 0.001), the p24 level in plasma (2.5 x 10(3) pg/ml [range, 8.2 x 10(2) to 5.6 x 10(3) pg/ml] versus 2.8 x 10(2) pg/ml [range, 8.2 x 10(1) to 6.3 x 10(2) pg/ml]; P < 0.001), and the percentage of p24-expressing cells in the spleen (median of 1.90% [range, 0.33% to 3.68%] versus median of 0.11% [range, 0.00% to 1.00%]; P = 0.003) in comparison with PBS-treated mice. These data suggest that EFdA is a promising candidate for a new age of HIV-1 chemotherapy and should be developed further as a potential therapy for individuals with multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants.
Article: Latent infection of CD4+ T cells provides a mechanism for lifelong persistence of HIV-1, even in patients on effective combination therapy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Combination therapy for HIV-1 infection can reduce plasma virus to undetectable levels, indicating that prolonged treatment might eradicate the infection. However, HIV-1 can persist in a latent form in resting CD4+ T cells. We measured the decay rate of this latent reservoir in 34 treated adults whose plasma virus levels were undetectable. The mean half-life of the latent reservoir was very long (43.9 months). If the latent reservoir consists of only 1 x 10(5) cells, eradication could take as long as 60 years. Thus, latent infection of resting CD4+ T cells provides a mechanism for lifelong persistence of HIV-1, even in patients on effective anti-retroviral therapy.Nature Medicine 06/1999; 5(5):512-7. · 22.46 Impact Factor
Article: 2'-deoxy-4'-C-ethynyl-2-fluoroadenosine, a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, is highly potent against all human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 and has low toxicity.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An idea to use 4'-C-substituted-2'-deoxynucleoside derivatives was proposed based on a working hypothesis to solve the problems of existing acquired immune deficiency syndrome chemotherapy (highly active antiretroviral therapy). Subsequent studies have successfully proved the validity of the idea and resulted in the development of 2'-deoxy-4'-C-ethynyl-2-fluoroadenosine, a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, which is highly potent to all human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 (HIV-1s) including multidrug-resistant HIV-1 and has a low toxicity.The Chemical Record 02/2006; 6(3):133-43. · 4.38 Impact Factor
Article: Identification of a reservoir for HIV-1 in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The hypothesis that quiescent CD4+ T lymphocytes carrying proviral DNA provide a reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was examined. In a study of 22 patients successfully treated with HAART for up to 30 months, replication-competent virus was routinely recovered from resting CD4+ T lymphocytes. The frequency of resting CD4+ T cells harboring latent HIV-1 was low, 0.2 to 16.4 per 10(6) cells, and, in cross-sectional analysis, did not decrease with increasing time on therapy. The recovered viruses generally did not show mutations associated with resistance to the relevant antiretroviral drugs. This reservoir of nonevolving latent virus in resting CD4+ T cells should be considered in deciding whether to terminate treatment in patients who respond to HAART.Science 12/1997; 278(5341):1295-300. · 31.20 Impact Factor