Article

Emotional support and gender in people living with HIV: Effects on psychological well-being

Department of Psychology, University Complutense of Madrid, 28223 Madrid, Spain.
Journal of Behavioral Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.1). 07/2009; 32(6):523-31. DOI: 10.1007/s10865-009-9222-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Current research indicates that emotional support is strongly associated with physical and psychological adjustment in persons living with HIV/AIDS. While gender- differences in health and health behaviors of HIV positive patients are well studied, less is known about how men and women living with HIV/AIDS may differentially perceive and integrate support into their lives, and how it subsequently affects their psychological well-being. This cross-sectional study examines how emotional support received from partners and family/friends and gender explains psychological well-being (i.e., stress, depression, anxiety) in a sample of 409 partnered European HIV positive individuals. We hypothesized that gender would modify the associations between support and psychological well-being such that men would benefit more from partner support whereas women would benefit more from family/friend support. Results revealed that regardless of the source of support, men's well-being was more positively influenced by support than was women's well-being. Women's difficulties in receiving emotional support may have deleterious effects on their psychological well-being.

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    • "Likewise, stigmatization of PLHIV, which may impair opportunity for housing, employment, income, quality of social relationships, and health-care treatment (Hatzenbuehler, Phelan, & Link, 2013) may have a direct role in the depressive symptoms and decreased QoL observed here. Among PLHIV, women experience more stigma (Murphy , Austin, & Greenwell, 2006; Steward et al., 2008; Subramanian, Gupte, Dorairaj, Periannan, & Mathai, 2009), have lower emotional support (Gordillo et al., 2009; Zierler et al., 2000), poorer QoL (Mahalakshmy, Premarajan, & Hamide, 2011; Reis, Santos, & Gir, 2012), and CART adherence (Hanif et al., 2013) and lower incomes and employment leading to greater socioeconomic burden (Charles et al., 2012), possibly contributing to their greater depression. "
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    ABSTRACT: Depression is the most common psychiatric co-morbidity among people living with HIV (PLHIV), with prevalence rates ranging from 25% to 36%. Depression impacts negatively upon adherence and response to combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) and the transmission of HIV infection through increased sexually risky behavior. This cross-sectional study presents data from a reference HIV-outpatient service in Dourados (Brazil) that evaluated the association between depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life, and clinical, socioeconomic, and demographic factors in newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients. Using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 61% with a predominance of self-deprecating and cognitive-affective factors. Depressive symptoms were associated with lower income (p = 0.019) and disadvantaged social class (p = 0.005). Poorer quality of life was related to depressive symptoms (p < 0.0001), low educational level (p = 0.05), and lower income (p = 0.03). These data suggest that socioeconomic factors, including level of income and education, are mediating the risk of depression and poor quality of life of PLHIV. Possible explanations for this effect are discussed, including the possible role of stigma.
    AIDS Care 03/2015; 27(8):1-7. DOI:10.1080/09540121.2015.1017442 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    • "Generally speaking, gender is a factor in the exposure, experience, and coping of stress (Davis, Burleson, & Kruszewski, 2009; Zwicker & DeLongis, 2010). For example, women are more vulnerable than men to be depressed (Boyd & Weissman, 1981; Baum & Grunberg, 1991; Wisniewski et al., 2005; Remien et al., 2006; Valverde et al., 2007; Gordillo et al., 2009; Pereira & Canavarro, 2011). Women are at a disadvantage in terms of being more prone to life stressors impacting their quality of life. "
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    Women & Health 07/2012; 52(5):472-84. DOI:10.1080/03630242.2012.687442 · 1.05 Impact Factor
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    • "Quality of life and related factors among people living with HIV in China Ó 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd 517 their partners and families (Gordillo et al. 2009). Third, women were considered to have had more anxiety moods than men, and also were more frequently to use negative coping strategies (Wu et al. 2006). "
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    Journal of Nursing and Healthcare of Chronic Illness 12/2011; 3(4). DOI:10.1111/j.1752-9824.2011.01127.x
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