Complete hydatidiform mole with retained maternal chromosomes 6 and 11.
ABSTRACT Distinction of hydatidiform moles from nonmolar specimens and their subclassification as complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) versus partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) are important for clinical practice and investigational studies to refine ascertainment of risk of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease which differs among these entities. Immunohistochemical analysis of p57 expression, a paternally imprinted maternally expressed gene on 11p15.5, and molecular genotyping are useful for improving diagnosis. CHMs are characterized by androgenetic diploidy, with the loss of p57 expression owing to lack of maternal DNA. Loss of p57 expression distinguishes CHMs from both PHMs (diandric triploidy) and nonmolar specimens (biparental diploidy) which retain expression. In the process of evaluating molar specimens in our laboratory with p57 immunohistochemistry and molecular genotyping, we identified a morphologically typical androgenetic diploid CHM with aberrant diffuse p57 expression. Molecular genotyping by short tandem repeat markers and genome-wide copy number analysis by single nucleotide polymorphism array established androgenetic diploidy with retained maternal copies of chromosomes 6 and 11, with aberrant p57 expression attributable to the latter. This case, only the second reported to date, illustrates the value of combined traditional pathologic and ancillary molecular techniques for refined diagnosis of molar specimens. Specimens with morphologic features suggestive of CHM yet retaining p57 expression should be subjected to molecular genotyping to establish a definitive diagnosis because misclassification as PHM underestimates the risk of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease. We recommend use of p57 immunohistochemistry and molecular genotyping to evaluate all products of conception specimens for which there is any consideration of a diagnosis of hydatidiform mole. Genome-wide analysis has the potential to assist in localizing imprinted genes critical for determining the morphologic and behavioral phenotypes of hydatidiform moles.
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ABSTRACT: Immunohistochemical analysis of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C, p57, Kip2) expression and molecular genotyping accurately classify hydatidiform moles into complete and partial types and distinguish these from non-molar specimens. Characteristics of a prospective series of all potentially molar specimens encountered in a large gynecologic pathology practice are summarized. Initially, all specimens were subjected to both analyses; this was later modified to triage cases for genotyping based on p57 results: p57-negative cases diagnosed as complete hydatidiform moles without genotyping; all p57-positive cases genotyped. Of the 678 cases, 645 were definitively classified as complete hydatidiform mole (201), partial hydatidiform mole (158), non-molar (272), and androgenetic/biparental mosaic (14); 33 were unsatisfactory, complex, or problematic. Of the 201 complete hydatidiform moles, 104 were p57-negative androgenetic and an additional 95 were p57-negative (no genotyping), 1 was p57-positive (retained maternal chromosome 11) androgenetic, and 1 was p57-non-reactive androgenetic; 90 (85%) of the 106 genotyped complete hydatidiform moles were monospermic and 16 were dispermic. Of the 158 partial hydatidiform moles, 155 were diandric triploid, with 154 p57-positive, 1 p57-negative (loss of maternal chromosome 11), and 1 p57-non-reactive; 3 were triandric tetraploid, with 2 p57-positive and 1 p57-negative (loss of maternal chromosome 11). Of 155 diandric triploid partial hydatidiform moles, 153 (99%) were dispermic and 2 were monospermic. Of the 272 non-molar specimens, 259 were p57-positive biparental diploid, 5 were p57-positive digynic triploid, 2 were p57-negative biparental diploid (no morphological features of biparental hydatidiform mole), and 6 were p57-non-reactive biparental diploid. Of the 14 androgenetic/biparental mosaics with discordant p57 expression, 6 were uniformly mosaic and 8 had a p57-negative androgenetic molar component. p57 expression is highly correlated with genotyping, serves as a reliable marker for diagnosis of complete hydatidiform moles, and identifies androgenetic cell lines in mosaic conceptions. Cases with aberrant and discordant p57 expression can be correctly classified by genotyping.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 26 July 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.143.Modern Pathology 07/2013; · 6.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) encompasses entities ranging from ubiquitous hydatidiform moles to rare neoplastic gestational trophoblastic tumors. In practice, the histological diagnosis of GTD continues to suffer from significant diagnostic inaccuracy with marked inter- and intra-observer variability, even among expert pathologists. Studies in correlation with genotypic evidence have confirmed a lack of accuracy in diagnosis of hydatidiform moles using histology alone. Applications of new immunohistochemical markers and molecular techniques have significantly enhanced the diagnostic precision of various GTDs in recent years. P57 immunohistochemistry is a highly useful marker in confirming complete hydatidiform mole. PCR based DNA genotyping has emerged as a powerful diagnostic measure to precisely classify both complete and partial hydatidiform moles. With acquisition of molecular diagnostic capabilities at most medical centers, these ancillary techniques have been increasingly integrated into the routine diagnostic workup of GTD. We propose an algorithmic approach combining histology and these ancillary tests to provide the best diagnostic practice possible. Under this algorithm, all cases with histological suspicion for complete mole are subject to p57 immunohistochemical confirmation, and all cases with histological suspicion for partial mole undergo DNA genotyping workup. Beyond hydatidiform mole, recognition of gestational trophoblastic tumors requires a high index of suspicion and application of immunohistochemical markers of trophoblast is helpful to accurately diagnose these rare tumors.Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology 05/2014; · 1.80 Impact Factor
Article: Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is a rare, incompletely understood placental stromal lesion, characterized by placentomegaly and striking ectasia and tortuosity of chorionic plate and stem villous vessels. Its prenatal ultrasonographic and gross pathologic features resemble those of a partial mole, but the fetus is typically normal and the placenta has a diploid, chromosomal complement. We discuss the pathologic features and current understanding of the etiopathogenesis of this condition, the supportive immunohistochemical and confirmatory molecular genetic studies important in its diagnosis, and its implications for pregnancy and infant outcomes.Surgical Pathology Clinics 03/2013; 6(1):127–151.