Continuous individual support of smoking cessation using text messaging: a pilot experimental study.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptance of an intervention using text messaging (short message service [SMS]) for continuous individual support of smoking cessation in young adults. Additionally, the optimal feedback intensity was investigated, and short-term efficacy of the intervention was explored.
In a cafeteria of the University of Greifswald, 575 visitors were screened for smoking status and usage of text messaging. From these, 194 persons who fulfilled the inclusion criteria of daily smoking and weekly usage of SMS were invited for participation in an SMS-based intervention. From these, 174 (90%) consented to participate. The participants were randomly allocated to one of three study groups: (a) control condition without intervention, (b) intervention with one weekly SMS feedback (1SMS), or (c) intervention with three weekly SMS feedbacks (3SMS). In study groups (b) and (c), individualized SMS feedbacks were sent to the participants weekly, based on data from the baseline assessment and a weekly SMS assessment of the stages of change according to the transtheoretical model. Program use and acceptance were compared between the two intervention groups differing in support intensity. An exploration of the short-term efficacy of the program was conducted by comparing the three study groups at the end of the 3-month intervention program on smoking variables.
The median number of replies to the weekly SMS assessments was 12.5 in the 1SMS group and 13.0 in the 3SMS group (not significant). The acceptance of the program did not differ between the intervention groups. At postassessment, no significant differences between the three study groups emerged on the examined smoking variables.
The high participation and retention rates suggest that SMS-based smoking cessation interventions are attractive for young adults. Support intensity did not affect the acceptance of the program. Longer follow-up periods and larger samples are required to obtain conclusive results about the efficacy of this intervention approach.
Article: Smoking cessation support delivered via mobile phone text messaging (txt2stop): a single-blind, randomised trial.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Smoking cessation programmes delivered via mobile phone text messaging show increases in self-reported quitting in the short term. We assessed the effect of an automated smoking cessation programme delivered via mobile phone text messaging on continuous abstinence, which was biochemically verified at 6 months. In this single-blind, randomised trial, undertaken in the UK, smokers willing to make a quit attempt were randomly allocated, using an independent telephone randomisation system, to a mobile phone text messaging smoking cessation programme (txt2stop), comprising motivational messages and behavioural-change support, or to a control group that received text messages unrelated to quitting. The system automatically generated intervention or control group texts according to the allocation. Outcome assessors were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was self-reported continuous smoking abstinence, biochemically verified at 6 months. All analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN 80978588. We assessed 11,914 participants for eligibility. 5800 participants were randomised, of whom 2915 smokers were allocated to the txt2stop intervention and 2885 were allocated to the control group; eight were excluded because they were randomised more than once. Primary outcome data were available for 5524 (95%) participants. Biochemically verified continuous abstinence at 6 months was significantly increased in the txt2stop group (10·7% txt2stop vs 4·9% control, relative risk [RR] 2·20, 95% CI 1·80-2·68; p<0·0001). Similar results were obtained when participants that were lost to follow-up were treated as smokers (268 [9%] of 2911 txt2stop vs 124 [4%] of 2881 control [RR 2·14, 95% CI 1·74-2·63; p<0·0001]), and when they were excluded (268 [10%] of 2735 txt2stop vs 124 [4%] of 2789 control [2·20, 1·79-2·71; p<0·0001]). No significant heterogeneity was shown in any of the prespecified subgroups. The txt2stop smoking cessation programme significantly improved smoking cessation rates at 6 months and should be considered for inclusion in smoking cessation services. UK Medical Research Council, Primary Care Research Networks.The Lancet 07/2011; 378(9785):49-55. · 38.28 Impact Factor