Article

Risk of pre-eclampsia in first and subsequent pregnancies: prospective cohort study

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
BMJ (online) (Impact Factor: 16.38). 02/2009; 338:b2255. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.b2255
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To investigate whether pre-eclampsia is more common in first pregnancies solely because fewer affected women, who presumably have a higher risk of recurrence, go on to have subsequent pregnancies.
Prospective cohort study.
Swedish Medical Birth Register.
763 795 primiparous mothers who had their first births in Sweden, 1987-2004.
Pre-eclampsia.
The risk of pre-eclampsia was 4.1% in the first pregnancy and 1.7% in later pregnancies overall. However, the risk was 14.7% in the second pregnancy for women who had had pre-eclampsia in their first pregnancy and 31.9% for women who had had pre-eclampsia in the previous two pregnancies. The risk for multiparous women without a history of pre-eclampsia was around 1%. The incidence of pre-eclampsia associated with delivery before 34 weeks' gestation was 0.42% in primiparous women, 0.11% in multiparous women without a history of pre-eclampsia, and 6.8% and 12.5% in women who had had one or two previous pregnancies affected, respectively. The proportion of women who went on to have a further pregnancy was 4-5% lower after having a pregnancy with any pre-eclampsia but over 10% lower if pre-eclampsia was associated with very preterm delivery. The estimated risk of pre-eclampsia in parous women did not change with standardisation for pregnancy rates.
Having pre-eclampsia in one pregnancy is a poor predictor of subsequent pregnancy but a strong predictor for recurrence of pre-eclampsia in future gestations. The lower overall risk of pre-eclampsia among parous women was not explained by fewer conceptions among women who had had pre-eclampsia in a previous gestation. Early onset pre-eclampsia might be associated with a reduced likelihood of a future pregnancy and with more recurrences than late onset pre-eclampsia when there are further pregnancies. Findings are consistent with the existence of two distinct conditions: a severe recurrent early onset type affected by chronic factors, genetic or environmental, and a milder sporadic form affected by transient factors.

0 Followers
 · 
206 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective To explore hospital costs by pregnant women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia or HELLP syndrome, managed according to customary, but non-standardized prenatal care, by relating maternal and child outcome to maternal health care expenditure. Study design This was a cohort study, in women of 18 years or older who suffered from early-onset preeclampsia or HELLP syndrome in their previous pregnancy (n = 104). We retrieved data retrospectively from hospital information systems and medical records of patients who had received customary, non-standardized prenatal care between 1996 and 2012. Our analyses focused on the costs generated between the first antenatal visit at the outpatient clinic and postpartum hospital discharge. Outcome measures were hospital resource use, costs, maternal and child outcome (recurrence of preeclampsia or HELLP syndrome, incidence of eclampsia, gestational age at delivery, intrauterine fetal demise, small-for-gestational-age birth and low 5 minutes’ Apgar score). We used linear regression analyses to evaluate whether maternal and child outcome and baseline characteristics correlated with hospital costs. Results Maternal hospital costs per patient averaged € 8047. Main cost drivers were maternal admissions and outpatient visits, together accounting for 80% of total costs. Primary cost drivers were preterm birth and recurrent preeclampsia or HELLP syndrome. Conclusion Hospital costs in the next pregnancy of formerly preeclamptic women varied widely with over 70% being medically unexplainable. The results of this study support the view that care standardization in these women can be expected to improve costs and efficacy of care without compromising outcome.
    European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 08/2014; 179. DOI:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2014.04.033 · 1.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To monitor and quantify uteroplacental perfusion in rat pregnancies by Doppler ultrasound (DUS) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). METHODS: Fourteen rats were randomized in two groups (the CEUS group and the control group). On days 8, 11, 14, 17, 19 and 20 of gestation, we used DUS to measure the resistance index (RI), pulsatility index and blood velocity in the uterine, arcuate and umbilical arteries in both groups. On days 14, 17 and 20, one group was also examined by CEUS. Quantitative perfusion parameters were calculated in 4 compartments (mesometrial triangle, placenta, umbilical cord and fetus) and compared. RESULTS: The DUS measurement showed that the RI of the uterine and arcuate arteries decreased (p < 0.01) from day 14 to day 17, while velocity increased each of these arteries (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Quantification of uteroplacental perfusion by CEUS in bolus mode revealed that blood volume and local blood flow increased from day 14 to day 20 in the mesometrial triangle (p < 0.01) and the placenta (p < 0.05). In the CEUS destruction-replenishment mode, the perfusion parameters showed trends similar to those observed in bolus mode. No microbubbles were detected in the umbilical vein or fetal compartments. The weights of pups in the two groups did not differ significantly. CONCLUSIONS: CEUS estimates of placental perfusion complement the data provided by DUS.
    Placenta 03/2013; 34(5). DOI:10.1016/j.placenta.2013.01.019 · 3.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Preterm birth is associated with most cases of neonatal deaths and negative health outcomes, and hypertensive disorders. Hypertension is influenced by maternal behavior, such as physical activity. Physical activity is associated with better outcomes for mother and fetus, besides healthier weight gains during pregnancy. Few women are physically active during pregnancy and few clinical trials have been carried out with pregnant women. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol of a controlled trial evaluating whether regular exercise during pregnancy may result in improved maternal-child health and neonatal outcomes. Methods/Design The PAMELA (Physical Activity for Mothers Enrolled in Longitudinal Analysis) trial is a randomized controlled trial nested in a birth cohort study. Eligible women belonging to the birth cohort will be invited (between the 16th and 20th week of gestation) to enroll in the trial. Baseline data (blood and urine samples, anthropometry and pulmonary function) will be collected at enrollment. The same assessments will be repeated eight and 16 weeks after baseline. After randomization, women will be allocated into either one of these groups: control, 426 women who will be advised to keep their usual daily activities; and intervention, 213 women who will engage in an exercise program, three sessions a week. At least 70 % attendance over 16 weeks will be required to be considered compliant to the intervention. Exercise protocol will include aerobics, strength and flexibility training. Maternal and child outcomes will be measured at the 36th week of gestation, at birth and at three, 12, 24 and 48 months postpartum. An intention-to-treat analysis will be performed. Discussion Few women are active during pregnancy and a vast majority decrease their activities or even quit exercising. We present a population-based regular exercise intervention focused on the prevention of hypertension, pre-eclampsia and preterm birth. Data on the underlying cohort will allow future analysis using different outcomes with low probability of recall bias or misclassification of exposure status. Results will potentially influence prenatal care counseling in regards to physical activity. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02148965, registered on 22 May 2014.
    Trials 05/2015; 16. DOI:10.1186/s13063-015-0749-3 · 2.12 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
5 Downloads
Available from