Cieza A, Hilfiker R, Boonen A, et al. Items from patient-oriented instruments can be integrated into interval scales to operationalize categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

ICF Research Branch, WHO Collaborating Center for the Family of International Classifications, German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information, IHRS, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Munich, Germany.
Journal of clinical epidemiology (Impact Factor: 3.42). 07/2009; 62(9):912-21, 921.e1-3. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2008.04.011
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To exemplify the construction of interval scales for specified categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) by integrating items from a variety of patient-oriented instruments.
Psychometric study using data from a convenience sample of 122 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Patients completed six different patient-oriented instruments. The contents of the instrument items were linked to the ICF. Rasch analyses for ordered-response options were used to examine whether the instrument items addressing the ICF category b130: Energy and drive functions constitute a psychometrically sound interval scale.
Nineteen items were linked to b130: Energy and drive functions. Sixteen of the 19 items fit the Rasch model according to the chi-square (chi(2)) statistic (chi(2)(df=32)=38.25, P=0.21) and the Z-fit statistic (Z(Mean)=0.451, Z(SD)=1.085 and Z(Mean)=-0.223, Z(SD)=1.132 for items and persons, respectively). The Person Separation Index r(beta) was 0.93.
The ICF category interval scales to operationalize single ICF categories can be constructed. The original format of the items included in the interval scales remains unchanged. This study represents a step forward in the operationalization and future implementation of the ICF.

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    • "Outcome measures of overall physical functioning and quality of life were most frequently being analysed. To a lesser extent, studies applied IRT to PRO measures of specific functioning [27,29-37], pain [35,38-43], psychological constructs [44-46], and work disability [47-51]. Studies also applied IRT to CMs such as measures of disease activity [52-54] and disease damage or radiographic severity [55-57]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Although item response theory (IRT) appears to be increasingly used within health care research in general, a comprehensive overview of the frequency and characteristics of IRT analyses within the rheumatic field is lacking. An overview of the use and application of IRT in rheumatology to date may give insight into future research directions and highlight new possibilities for the improvement of outcome assessment in rheumatic conditions. Therefore, this study systematically reviewed the application of IRT to patient-reported and clinical outcome measures in rheumatology. Methods Literature searches in PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science resulted in 99 original English-language articles which used some form of IRT-based analysis of patient-reported or clinical outcome data in patients with a rheumatic condition. Both general study information and IRT-specific information were assessed. Results Most studies used Rasch modeling for developing or evaluating new or existing patient-reported outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis patients. Outcomes of principle interest were physical functioning and quality of life. Since the last decade, IRT has also been applied to clinical measures more frequently. IRT was mostly used for evaluating model fit, unidimensionality and differential item functioning, the distribution of items and persons along the underlying scale, and reliability. Less frequently used IRT applications were the evaluation of local independence, the threshold ordering of items, and the measurement precision along the scale. Conclusion IRT applications have markedly increased within rheumatology over the past decades. To date, IRT has primarily been applied to patient-reported outcomes, however, applications to clinical measures are gaining interest. Useful IRT applications not yet widely used within rheumatology include the cross-calibration of instrument scores and the development of computerized adaptive tests which may reduce the measurement burden for both the patient and the clinician. Also, the measurement precision of outcome measures along the scale was only evaluated occasionally. Performed IRT analyses should be adequately explained, justified, and reported. A global consensus about uniform guidelines should be reached concerning the minimum number of assumptions which should be met and best ways of testing these assumptions, in order to stimulate the quality appraisal of performed IRT analyses.
    BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 10/2012; 13(1):216. DOI:10.1186/1471-2474-13-216 · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    • "One way to tackle the validity problems of the PDQ-39 could be to regroup items into theoretically more interpretable domains based on their linkage to the ICF, since this is a universal and standardized nomenclature of functioning and health [11]. Such linking and regrouping of items need to be followed by psychometric analyses and refinement, which preferably is done by means of the Rasch measurement model [12]. Here we explore the possibility of regrouping PDQ-39 items according to the ICF framework and test these new scales psychometrically using Rasch analysis. "
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    ABSTRACT: The 39-item Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-39) is the most widely used patient-reported rating scale in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, recent studies have questioned its validity and it is unclear what scores represent. This study explored the possibility of regrouping PDQ-39 items into scales representing the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) components of Body Functions and Structures (BF), Activities and Participation (AP), and Environmental (E) factors. An iterative process using Rasch analysis produced five new items sets, two each for the BF and AP components and one representing E. Four of these were found to represent clinically meaningful variables: Emotional Impairment (BF), Gross Motor Disability (AP), Fine Motor Disability (AP), and Socioattitudinal Environment (E) with acceptable reliability (0.73-0.96) and fit to the Rasch model (total item-trait chi-square, 8.28-33.2; P > .05). These new ICF-based scales offer a means to reanalyze PDQ-39 data from an ICF perspective and to study its health components using a widely available health status questionnaire for people with PD.
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