A review of risk factors and patterns of motorcycle injuries

Institute of Injury Prevention and Control, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan, ROC.
Accident; analysis and prevention (Impact Factor: 1.65). 08/2009; 41(4):710-22. DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2009.03.010
Source: PubMed


Per vehicle mile traveled, motorcycle riders have a 34-fold higher risk of death in a crash than people driving other types of motor vehicles. While lower-extremity injuries most commonly occur in all motorcycle crashes, head injuries are most frequent in fatal crashes. Helmets and helmet use laws have been shown to be effective in reducing head injuries and deaths from motorcycle crashes. Alcohol is the major contributing factor to fatal crashes. Enforcement of legal limits on the blood alcohol concentration is effective in reducing motorcycle deaths, while some alcohol-related interventions such as a minimal legal drinking age, increased alcohol excise taxes, and responsible beverage service specifically for motorcycle riders have not been examined. Other modifiable protective or risk factors comprise inexperience and driver training, conspicuity and daytime headlight laws, motorcycle licensure and ownership, riding speed, and risk-taking behaviors. Features of motorcycle use and potentially effective prevention programs for motorcycle crash injuries in developing countries are discussed. Finally, recommendations for future motorcycle-injury research are made.

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    • "Head injury had been found to be the leading cause of death even in helmeted riders [28]. It had also been deduced that helmet and the other safety equipment showed efficacy in reducing deaths or serious injuries, but they had not been sufficient for safe lives [29] [30]. It should be noted that obedience to traffic laws is complimentary to helmet use. "
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    ABSTRACT: With increasing use of motorcycle as means of transport in developing countries, traumatic brain injuries from motorcycle crashes have been increasing. The only single gadget that protects riders from traumatic brain injury is crash helmet. Objective. The objectives were to determine the treatment outcome among traumatic brain injury patients from motorcycle crashes and the rate of helmet use among them. Methods. It was a prospective, cross-sectional study of motorcycle-related traumatic brain injury patients managed in our center from 2010 to 2014. Patients were managed using our unit protocol for traumatic brain injuries. Data for the study were collected in accident and emergency, intensive care unit, wards, and outpatient clinic. The data were analyzed using Environmental Performance Index (EPI) info 7 software. Results. Ninety-six patients were studied. There were 87 males. Drivers were 65. Only one patient wore helmet. Majority of them were between 20 and 40 years. Fifty-three patients had mild head injuries. Favorable outcome among them was 84.35% while mortality was 12.5%. Severity of the injury affected the outcome significantly. Conclusion. Our study showed that the helmet use by motorcycle riders was close to zero despite the existing laws making its use compulsory in Nigeria. The outcome was related to severity of injuries.
    08/2015; 2015:1-6. DOI:10.1155/2015/696787
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    • "Τέλος, η οδήγηση μοτοσικλέτας και η κατανάλωση αλκοόλ εκτιμάται ότι είναι βασικός παράγοντας για το 75% των ατυχημάτων (Kasantikul et al., 2005). Έχει αποδειχθεί ότι οι μοτοσικλετιστές είναι πιο ευαίσθητοι στην επιρροή του αλκοόλ από τους επιβάτες ΙΧ, καθότι εμπλέκονται σε θανατηφόρα ατυχήματα με χαμηλότερα επίπεδα αλκοόλ στο αίμα τους (Lin & Kraus, 2009, Vous et al., 2007, Watson & Garriott, 1992). Δεν υπάρχει όμως ακόμη μια σαφής συγκριτική εικόνα για την αντιμετώπιση του θέματος «Αλκοόλ και οδήγηση» για αυτές τις δύο ομάδες οδηγών. "
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    ABSTRACT: The object of the present paper is to examine the factors affecting driving under the influence of alcohol of car drivers and motorcycles. To achieve this goal, the responses of a representative sample of Greek drivers of cars and motorcycles are examined from the pan-European research SARTRE 4 and are analyzed by logistic regression models. The application of the models revealed that the factors affecting driving under the influence of alcohol statistically significantly are six for car drivers and seven for motorcyclists, four of which are common. The common factors are: age, their opinion on whether most of their friends would be driving under the influence of alcohol, their opinion on whether a person is capable of driving carefully in case of consumption alcohol and their education level. Additional factors for car drivers are their view on the legal limit of alcohol consumption and their gender, and for motorcyclists it is their view on how dangerous driving under the influence of drugs is. Keywords: Driving under the influence of alcohol, car drivers, motorcyclists, logistic regression analysis.
    Proceedings of the 6th Pan-hellenic Road Safety Conference, Hellenic Institute of Transportation Engineers, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, March 2015., Athens, Greece; 03/2015
    • "In France, it is not mandatory for cyclists to wear helmets and in 2010, only 22% of cyclists did so, which nevertheless represents an improvement on the figure of 14.5% in 2005 (Richard et al., 2013). With regard to conspicuity, much research has been conducted on MTW users (Lin and Kraus, 2009), but not as much on cyclists and even less on pedestrians although these two groups could probably benefit from them (Kwan and Mapstone, 2006; Thornley et al., 2008; Zegeer and Bushell, 2012). Lastly, prevention campaigns should raise the awareness of all road users about the higher risk of vulnerable road users (Constant and Lagarde, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Travel practices are changing: bicycle and motorized two-wheeler (MTW) use are rising in some of France's large cities. These are cheaper modes of transport and therefore attractive at a time of economic crisis, but they also allow their users to avoid traffic congestion. At the same time, active transport modes such as walking and cycling are encouraged because they are beneficial to health and reduce pollution. It is therefore important to find out more about the road crash risks of the different modes of transport. To do this, we need to take account of the number of individuals who use each, and, even better, their travel levels. Method: We estimated the exposure-based fatality rates for road traffic crashes in France, on the basis of the ratio between the number of fatalities and exposure to road accident risk. Fatality data were obtained from the French national police database of road traffic casualties in the period 2007-2008. Exposure data was estimated from the latest national household travel survey (ENTD) which was conducted from April 2007 to April 2008. Three quantities of travel were computed for each mode of transport: (1) the number of trips, (2) the distance traveled and (3) the time spent traveling. Annual fatality rates were assessed by road user type, age and sex. Results: The overall annual fatality rates were 6.3 per 100 million trips, 5.8 per billion kilometers traveled and 0.20 per million hours spent traveling. The fatality rates differed according to road user type, age and sex. The risk of being killed was 20 to 32 times higher for motorized two-wheeler users than for car occupants. For cyclists, the risk of being killed, both on the basis of time spent traveling and the number of trips was about 1.5 times higher than for car occupants. Risk for pedestrians compared to car occupants was similar according to time spent traveling, lower according to the number of trips and higher according to the distance traveled. People from the 17-20 and 21-29 age groups and those aged 70 and over had the highest rates. Males had higher rates than females, by a factor of between 2 and 3. Conclusion: When exposure is taken into account, the risks for motorized two-wheeler users are extremely high compared to other types of road user. This disparity can be explained by the combination of speed and a lack of protection (except for helmets). The differential is so great that prevention measures could probably not eliminate it. The question that arises is as follows: with regard to public health, should not the use of MTW, or at least of motorcycles, be deterred? The difference between the fatality risk of cyclists and of car occupants is much smaller (1.5 times higher); besides, there is much room for improvements in cyclist safety, for instance by increasing the use of helmets and conspicuity equipment. Traffic calming could also benefit cyclists, pedestrians and perhaps moped users.
    Accident Analysis & Prevention 12/2014; 75C:217-225. DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2014.10.025 · 1.87 Impact Factor
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