A review of risk factors and patterns of motorcycle injuries
ABSTRACT Per vehicle mile traveled, motorcycle riders have a 34-fold higher risk of death in a crash than people driving other types of motor vehicles. While lower-extremity injuries most commonly occur in all motorcycle crashes, head injuries are most frequent in fatal crashes. Helmets and helmet use laws have been shown to be effective in reducing head injuries and deaths from motorcycle crashes. Alcohol is the major contributing factor to fatal crashes. Enforcement of legal limits on the blood alcohol concentration is effective in reducing motorcycle deaths, while some alcohol-related interventions such as a minimal legal drinking age, increased alcohol excise taxes, and responsible beverage service specifically for motorcycle riders have not been examined. Other modifiable protective or risk factors comprise inexperience and driver training, conspicuity and daytime headlight laws, motorcycle licensure and ownership, riding speed, and risk-taking behaviors. Features of motorcycle use and potentially effective prevention programs for motorcycle crash injuries in developing countries are discussed. Finally, recommendations for future motorcycle-injury research are made.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the reported research was to examine the perceptions of road user safety amongst different road users and examine the link between attitudes, empathy and skill in motorcycle safety behaviour. Motorcyclists were perceived by the study participants, members of the public at four different locations at the UK (including motorcyclists and non-motorcyclists), as a group be at a high risk of accidents on the road. This was due to perceived behavioural characteristics of motorcyclists - who were viewed as 'thrill seekers' - as well as observed behaviours on the road. This, coupled with the physical vulnerability and excessive speeds, meant that motorbike driving was considered by the study participants as the least safe form of road use. There was broad agreement that motorcycling was dangerous as a whole, but not all motorcyclists were necessarily risky riders. The issue of 'competitive space' emerged between car drivers and motorcyclists in particular and it was suggested that there was a lack of mutual awareness and considerations between the two groups. Generally, greatest empathy comes from drivers who are motorcyclists themselves. Engineering, education, enforcement interventions were investigated. These were aimed at two main areas: normalising safer driving behaviours for motorcyclists and increasing awareness of bikes for motorists-particularly in relation to reducing speed limits at urban junctions. Finally, the idea of risk mapping and reduced speed limits on rural roads was seen as potentially effective-particularly as certain motorcyclists highlighted that they changed their riding behaviours by increasing speed and taking greater risks on these roads.Accident; analysis and prevention 11/2012; 49:105-13. DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2011.06.005 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The object of the present paper is to examine the factors affecting driving under the influence of alcohol of car drivers and motorcycles. To achieve this goal, the responses of a representative sample of Greek drivers of cars and motorcycles are examined from the pan-European research SARTRE 4 and are analyzed by logistic regression models. The application of the models revealed that the factors affecting driving under the influence of alcohol statistically significantly are six for car drivers and seven for motorcyclists, four of which are common. The common factors are: age, their opinion on whether most of their friends would be driving under the influence of alcohol, their opinion on whether a person is capable of driving carefully in case of consumption alcohol and their education level. Additional factors for car drivers are their view on the legal limit of alcohol consumption and their gender, and for motorcyclists it is their view on how dangerous driving under the influence of drugs is. Keywords: Driving under the influence of alcohol, car drivers, motorcyclists, logistic regression analysis.Proceedings of the 6th Pan-hellenic Road Safety Conference, Hellenic Institute of Transportation Engineers, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, March 2015., Athens, Greece; 03/2015
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to compare injuries sustained by motorcycle drivers with those sustained by pillion passengers in fatal head-on motorcycle collision accidents. We examined 84 cases of fatal head-on motorcycle collision accidents, causing 79 deaths of drivers and 19 deaths of pillion passengers, using medical and medico-legal examination records. The distribution of superficial injuries, characteristic injuries, injury severity as well as fatal causes was evaluated and compared using χ(2) tests. The results revealed a significant difference in the distribution of superficial injuries between drivers and passengers. The proportions of injuries in the hand and perineum regions were significantly higher in drivers than passengers. Some characteristic superficial injuries on the palms, chest, abdomen as well as the perineum areas were observed in drivers, while none of these characteristic injuries were observed in pillion passengers. Drivers were found to have suffered more severe chest and abdomen injuries than passengers. In addition, there was a higher incidence of fatalities involving run-over injuries for drivers compared with pillion passengers. The proportion of fatal injuries related to tumbling was higher for passengers than for drivers. Overall, our results revealed a difference in injury severity, superficial injury distribution and characteristic injuries between drivers and passengers. Few characteristic injuries were found in pillion passengers. These findings could help to guide medico-legal examinations, particularly in identifying drivers among victims involved in traffic accidents.Forensic science international 10/2010; 207(1-3):188-92. DOI:10.1016/j.forsciint.2010.10.003 · 2.12 Impact Factor