A review of risk factors and patterns of motorcycle injuries.
ABSTRACT Per vehicle mile traveled, motorcycle riders have a 34-fold higher risk of death in a crash than people driving other types of motor vehicles. While lower-extremity injuries most commonly occur in all motorcycle crashes, head injuries are most frequent in fatal crashes. Helmets and helmet use laws have been shown to be effective in reducing head injuries and deaths from motorcycle crashes. Alcohol is the major contributing factor to fatal crashes. Enforcement of legal limits on the blood alcohol concentration is effective in reducing motorcycle deaths, while some alcohol-related interventions such as a minimal legal drinking age, increased alcohol excise taxes, and responsible beverage service specifically for motorcycle riders have not been examined. Other modifiable protective or risk factors comprise inexperience and driver training, conspicuity and daytime headlight laws, motorcycle licensure and ownership, riding speed, and risk-taking behaviors. Features of motorcycle use and potentially effective prevention programs for motorcycle crash injuries in developing countries are discussed. Finally, recommendations for future motorcycle-injury research are made.
- SourceAvailable from: Ashleigh J Filtness[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The appropriateness of applying drink driving legislation to motorcycle riding has been questioned as there may be fundamental differences in the effects of alcohol on these two activities. Several psychomotor and higher-order cognitive skills underpinning riding performance appear to be significantly influenced by low levels of alcohol. It has been suggested that alcohol may redirect riders" focus from higher-order cognitive skills to more physical skills such as maintaining balance. The effects of low doses of alcohol on balance ability were investigated in a laboratory setting. The static balance of ten experienced riders was measured while they performed either no secondary task, a visual search task, or a cognitive (arithmetic) task following the administration of alcohol (0; 0.02, and 0.05% BAC). Subjective ratings of intoxication and balance impairment increased in a dose-dependent manner; however, objective measures of static balance were negatively affected only at the .05% BAC dose. Performance on a concurrent secondary visual search task, but not a purely cognitive (arithmetic) task, improved postural stability across all BAC levels. Finally, the .05% BAC dose was associated with impaired performance on the cognitive (arithmetic) task, but not the visual search task, when participants were balancing, but neither task was impaired by alcohol when participants were standing on the floor. Implications for road safety and future "drink riding" policy considerations are discussed.
Conference Paper: Recent Trend of Fatal Motorcycle Crashes in Malaysia[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Motorcyclist is one of the most vulnerable groups of road users. In Malaysia, motorcyclist casualties constitute more than two thirds of road accident victims. This study describes recent trends of fatal motorcycle crash in Malaysia as well as changes in crash rates during the past ten years. Police data were used to examine the motorcycle fatal crashes annually from year 1999 to 2008. The data was retrospectively collected from the MIROS Accident Database and Analysis Unit which maintains a centralised national traffic accident database, MIROS Road Accident Database (MROADS). A total of 35,603 fatalities among motorcyclist were recorded during the ten years period. Most of the victims of motorcycle crash were males in which male predominated over female in the ratio 11:1. The fatalities among motorcycle rider were 88% while only 12 % for pillion. Majority (38%) of the victims were in the age group 16–25 years. Overall, the rider fatalities increased in 14% with significant increase in female rider which has doubled over the last ten years. Nevertheless, female pillion fatalities have reduced 78% with only 34 deaths in the year 2008. Although the number of registered motorcycle rise the motorcycle fatalities rate per 10000 registered motorcycles has decreased from 6.7 in the year 1999 to 4.6 in the year 2008. Overall, the number of fatalities in motorcycle crashes in Malaysia has continued to increase over the past ten years and substantial progress remains to be seen. While male riders surpass females in number of fatal crashes, there are increasing trends to crash fatalities in female riders. These findings provide feedback on potential road safety successes and areas needing specific interventions for future improvements.The 8th Int. Forum of Automotive Traffic Safety (INFATS), Wuhu, China, December 2010, Wuhu, China; 12/2012