An Unwelcome Guest: Aspergillus Colonization in Lung Transplantation and Its Association with Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome

Division of Lung Biology, NIEHS, RTP, NC.
American Journal of Transplantation (Impact Factor: 6.19). 07/2009; 9(8):1705-6. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02709.x
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lung transplantation remains the major therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease, yet survival remains limited by infection and chronic rejection. Invasive fungal infection, especially invasive aspergillosis, continues to cause a high rate of mortality after lung transplantation, and there is evidence that fungal colonization in itself may have a negative impact as well. This article reviews clinical trials in primary antifungal prophylaxis to determine whether antifungal prophylaxis after lung transplantation is indicated. RECENT FINDINGS: A variety of antifungal regimens have been tested after lung transplantation including itraconazole or voriconazole monotherapy, inhaled amphotericin B products, and combination therapy. Studies using a historical cohort that has not received antifungal prophylaxis show a decrease in the incidence of invasive fungal disease and/or invasive aspergillosis with antifungal prophylaxis, with relatively few safety concerns. Both systemic azoles and inhaled amphotericin B products appear to provide benefit. SUMMARY: Despite multiple reports of antifungal prophylaxis efficacy, a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial has yet to be performed. The optimal agent or agents for prophylaxis and length of therapy posttransplantation remain unknown. However, sufficient evidence exists for the utility of some type of antifungal prophylaxis posttransplantation for the majority of lung transplant recipients.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 06/2013; DOI:10.1097/QCO.0b013e3283630e67 · 5.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) are important causes of solid organ transplant-related morbidity and mortality. Modifications and improvements in the transplant surgical procedures, supportive care, and advances in the diagnosis and treatment of these IFD have produced notable changes in their epidemiology and outcome. Candida and other yeast genera continue to play an important etiological role, but Aspergillus and other filamentous fungi are the cause of most IFD in lung transplant recipients. This review is an update of the relevant findings in the literature related to the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of IFD in solid organ transplant recipients, with a main focus on invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis.
    Revista Iberoamericana de Micología 07/2011; 28(3):110-119. DOI:10.1016/j.riam.2011.06.002 · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aspergillus is the most common cause of invasive fungal infection in lung transplant recipients. Most transplant centers employ routine antifungal prophylaxis to prevent the development of invasive aspergillosis (IA). We identified 22 studies from the literature to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis, in order to assess the development of IA and Aspergillus colonization with and without antifungal prophylaxis. Similarly, differences in the toxicities of different formulations of amphotericin-B and azoles were analyzed. Nineteen of 235 (8.1 %) and 28 of 196 (14.3 %) developed IA in the universal prophylaxis and no-prophylaxis arms, respectively (RR: 0.36, CI: 0.05-2.62). We did not find a significant reduction in IA or Aspergillus colonization with universal anti-aspergillus prophylaxis. There was no difference in the adverse events of inhaled amphotericin-B deoxycholate and lipid formulations of inhaled amphotericin-B. However, voriconazole was more hepatotoxic than itraconazole. These results should be interpreted with caution due to heterogeneity of the studies. A multicenter randomized controlled trial is warranted to assess the efficacy of anti-aspergillus prophylaxis in lung transplant recipients.
    Current Infectious Disease Reports 10/2013; DOI:10.1007/s11908-013-0380-y

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May 16, 2014