Water splitting on semiconductor catalysts under visible-light irradiation.
ABSTRACT Sustainable hydrogen production is a key target for the development of alternative, future energy systems that will provide a clean and affordable energy supply. The Sun is a source of silent and precious energy that is distributed fairly all over the Earth daily. However, its tremendous potential as a clean, safe, and economical energy source cannot be exploited unless the energy is accumulated or converted into more useful forms. The conversion of solar energy into hydrogen via the water-splitting process, assisted by photo-semiconductor catalysts, is one of the most promising technologies for the future because large quantities of hydrogen can potentially be generated in a clean and sustainable manner. This Minireview provides an overview of the principles, approaches, and research progress on solar hydrogen production via the water-splitting reaction on photo-semiconductor catalysts. It presents a survey of the advances made over the last decades in the development of catalysts for photochemical water splitting under visible-light irradiation. The Minireview also analyzes the energy requirements and main factors that determine the activity of photocatalysts in the conversion of water into hydrogen and oxygen using sunlight. Remarkable progress has been made since the pioneering work by Fujishima and Honda in 1972, but he development of photocatalysts with improved efficiencies for hydrogen production from water using solar energy still faces major challenges. Research strategies and approaches adopted in the search for active and efficient photocatalysts, for example through new materials and synthesis methods, are presented and analyzed.
- SourceAvailable from: Preethi Vijayarengan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Stability and efficiency of photocatalysts are important to realize the practical applications of them for photocatalytic hydrogen production from industrial sulfide effluent. Novel, magnetically separable core–shell nano photocatalysts viz., CdS/Fe2O3, ZnS/Fe2O3 and (CdS + ZnS)/Fe2O3 were prepared and their hydrogen evolution activity under visible light was examined. The XRD result shows that CdS and ZnS were very well coated on the surface of the iron oxide core shell particles. The HR-TEM result also confirms the core shell formation. (CdS + ZnS)/Fe2O3 evolved higher volume of hydrogen than the other catalysts. It is ascribed to rapid migration of excited electrons from (CdS + ZnS) toward Fe2O3 suppressing electron hole annihilation compared to other catalysts. The catalysts can be easily recovered from the reaction medium using external magnetic bar and so the photocatalyst can be reused without any mass loss. Hence, it can be a potential catalyst for recovery of hydrogen from industrial sulfide containing waste streams.International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 12/2013; · 3.55 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Samples of the activated microporous aluminophosphate Co-APO-5, featuring ca. 20% of Co(3+) cations, when immersed in water evolve molecular oxygen at room temperature in an endothermic process, without the need for either light or a sacrificial reactant. Successive drying of the sample at temperatures around 520 K releases molecular hydrogen, with recovery of the initial conditions. Several hydration-dehydration cycles may be performed without loss of activity, i.e. water is split in a thermal cycle under relatively mild conditions.Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 03/2014; · 4.20 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Photocatalytically active nanostructures require a large specific surface area with the presence of many catalytically active sites for the oxidation and reduction half reactions, and fast electron (hole) diffusion and charge separation. Nanowires present suitable architectures to meet these requirements. Axially segmented Ag|ZnO and radially segmented (coaxial) TiO2-Ag nanowires with a diameter of 200 nm and a length of 6-20 µm were made by templated electrodeposition within the pores of polycarbonate track-etched (PCTE) or anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes, respectively. In the photocatalytic experiments, the ZnO and TiO2 phases acted as photoanodes, and Ag as cathode. No external circuit is needed to connect both electrodes, which is a key advantage over conventional photo-electrochemical cells. For making segmented Ag|ZnO nanowires, the Ag salt electrolyte was replaced after formation of the Ag segment to form a ZnO segment attached to the Ag segment. For making coaxial TiO2-Ag nanowires, a TiO2 gel was first formed by the electrochemically induced sol-gel method. Drying and thermal annealing of the as-formed TiO2 gel resulted in the formation of crystalline TiO2 nanotubes. A subsequent Ag electrodeposition step inside the TiO2 nanotubes resulted in formation of coaxial TiO2-Ag nanowires. Due to the combination of an n-type semiconductor (ZnO or TiO2) and a metal (Ag) within the same nanowire, a Schottky barrier was created at the interface between the phases. To demonstrate the photocatalytic activity of these nanowires, the Ag|ZnO nanowires were used in a photocatalytic experiment in which H2 gas was detected upon UV illumination of the nanowires dispersed in a methanol/water mixture. After 17 min of illumination, approximately 0.2 vol% H2 gas was detected from a suspension of ~0.1 g of Ag|ZnO nanowires in a 50 ml 80 vol% aqueous methanol solution.Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE. 01/2014;