Solution structure and dynamics of S100A5 in the apo and Ca2+-bound states.
ABSTRACT S100A5 is a calcium binding protein of the S100 family, with one canonical and one S100-specific EF-hand motif per subunit. Although its function is still unknown, it has recently been reported to be one of the S100 proteins able to interact with the receptor for advanced glycation end products. The homodimeric solution structures of S100A5 in both the apo and the calcium(II)-loaded forms have been obtained, and show a conformational rearrangement upon calcium binding. This rearrangement involves, in particular, the hinge loop connecting the N-terminal and the C-terminal EF-hand domains, the reorientation of helix III with respect to helix IV, as common to several S100 proteins, and the elongation of helix IV. The details of the structural changes are important because they must be related to the different functions, still largely unknown, of the different members of the S100 family. For the first time for a full-length S100 protein, relaxation measurements were performed on both the apo and the calcium-bound forms. A quite large mobility was observed in the hinge loop, which is not quenched in the calcium form. The structural differences resulting upon calcium binding change the global shape and the distribution of hydrophobic and charged residues of the S100A5 homodimer in a modest but significantly different manner with respect to the closest homologues S100A4 and S100A6.
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ABSTRACT: Low energy modes have been calculated for the largest possible number of available representatives (>150) of EF-hand domains belonging to different members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein superfamily. These proteins are the major actors in signal transduction. The latter, in turn, relies on the dynamical properties of the systems, in particular on the relative movements of the four helices characterizing each EF-hand domain upon calcium binding. The peculiar structural and dynamical features of this protein superfamily are systematically investigated by a novel approach, where the lowest energy (essential) modes are described in the space of the six interhelical angles among the four helices constituting the EF-hand domain. The modes, obtained through a general and transferable coarse-graining scheme, identify the easy directions of helical motions. It is found that, for most proteins, the two lowest energy modes are sufficient to capture most of the helices' fluctuation dynamics. Strikingly, the comparison of such modes for all possible pairs of EF-hand domain representatives reveals that only few easy directions are preferred within this large protein superfamily. This enables us to introduce a novel dynamics-based classification of EF-hand domains that complements existing structure-based characterizations from an unexplored biological perspective.Journal of Proteome Research 11/2007; 6(11):4245-55. · 5.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: S100B is a homodimeric member of the EF-hand calcium-binding protein superfamily. The protein has been implicated in cellular processes such as cell differentiation and growth, plays a role in cytoskeletal structure and function, and may have a role in neuropathological diseases, such as Alzheimers. The effects of S100B are mediated via its interaction with target proteins. While several studies have suggested that this interaction is propagated through a calcium-induced conformational change, leading to the exposure of a hydrophobic region of S100B, the molecular details behind this structural alteration remain unclear. The solution structure of calcium-saturated human S100B (Ca(2+)-S100B) has been determined by heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Ca(2+)-S100B forms a well defined globular structure comprising four EF-hand calcium-binding sites and an extensive hydrophobic dimer interface. A comparison of Ca(2+)-S100B with apo S100B and Ca(2+)-calbindin D9k indicates that while calcium-binding to S100B results in little change in the site I EF-hand, it induces a backbone reorientation of the N terminus of the site II EF-hand. This reorientation leads to a dramatic change in the position of helix III relative to the other helices. The calcium-induced reorientation of calcium-binding site II results in the increased exposure of several hydrophobic residues in helix IV and the linker region. While following the general mechanism of calcium modulatory proteins, whereby a hydrophobic target site is exposed, the 'calcium switch' observed in S100B appears to be unique from that of other EF-hand proteins and may provide insights into target specificity among calcium modulatory proteins.Structure 03/1998; 6(2):211-22. · 5.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Calcyclin is a homodimeric protein belonging to the S100 subfamily of EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding proteins, which function in Ca(2+) signal transduction processes. A refined high-resolution solution structure of Ca(2+)-bound rabbit calcyclin has been determined by heteronuclear solution NMR. In order to understand the Ca(2+)-induced structural changes in S100 proteins, in-depth comparative structural analyses were used to compare the apo and Ca(2+)-bound states of calcyclin, the closely related S100B, and the prototypical Ca(2+)-sensor protein calmodulin. Upon Ca(2+) binding, the position and orientation of helix III in the second EF-hand is altered, whereas the rest of the protein, including the dimer interface, remains virtually unchanged. This Ca(2+)-induced structural change is much less drastic than the "opening" of the globular EF-hand domains that occurs in classical Ca(2+) sensors, such as calmodulin. Using homology models of calcyclin based on S100B, a binding site in calcyclin has been proposed for the N-terminal domain of annexin XI and the C-terminal domain of the neuronal calcyclin-binding protein. The structural basis for the specificity of S100 proteins is discussed in terms of the variation in sequence of critical contact residues in the common S100 target-binding site.Journal of Molecular Biology 04/2002; 317(2):279-90. · 3.91 Impact Factor