Dynamics of macrophage polarization reveal new mechanism to inhibit IL-1beta release through pyrophosphates.

Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK.
The EMBO Journal (Impact Factor: 10.75). 07/2009; 28(14):2114-27. DOI: 10.1038/emboj.2009.163
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In acute inflammation, extracellular ATP activates P2X(7) ion channel receptors (P2X(7)R) on M1 polarized macrophages to release pro-inflammatory IL-1beta through activation of the caspase-1/nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat receptor containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. In contrast, M2 polarized macrophages are critical to the resolution of inflammation but neither actions of P2X(7)R on these macrophages nor mechanisms by which macrophages switch from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory phenotypes are known. Here, we investigated extracellular ATP signalling over a dynamic macrophage polarity gradient from M1 through M2 phenotypes. In macrophages polarized towards, but not at, M2 phenotype, in which intracellular IL-1beta remains high and the inflammasome is intact, P2X(7)R activation selectively uncouples to the NLRP3-inflammasome activation but not to upstream ion channel activation. In these intermediate M1/M2 polarized macrophages, extracellular ATP now acts through its pyrophosphate chains, independently of other purine receptors, to inhibit IL-1beta release by other stimuli through two independent mechanisms: inhibition of ROS production and trapping of the inflammasome complex through intracellular clustering of actin filaments.

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    ABSTRACT: In addition to a fundamental role in cellular bioenergetics, the purine nucleotide adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays a crucial role in the extracellular space as a signaling molecule. ATP and its metabolites serve as ligands for a family of receptors that are collectively referred to as purinergic receptors. These receptors were first described and characterized in the nervous system but it soon became evident that they are expressed ubiquitously. In the immune system, purinergic signals regulate the migration and activation of immune cells and they may also orchestrate the resolution of inflammation (1, 2). The intracellular signal transduction initiated by purinergic receptors is strongly coupled to Ca(2+)-signaling, and co-ordination of these pathways plays a critical role in innate immunity. In this review, we provide an overview of purinergic and Ca(2+)-signaling in the context of macrophage phenotypic polarization and discuss the implications on macrophage function in physiological and pathological conditions.
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