Global Economic and Health Benefits of Tobacco Control: Part 1
ABSTRACT Although the risks of tobacco smoking have been known for decades, the pandemic of tobacco use continues. There are an estimated 1.3 billion smokers worldwide, along with millions more using various oral tobacco products. Recent global estimates place the mortality burden from tobacco use at over 6 million annually, with nearly two-thirds of these deaths occurring in developing countries. If current patterns persist, there will be an estimated 1 billion deaths from tobacco during the twenty-first century. Part 1 of this two-part paper provides an overview of the tobacco pandemic, the scope of the pandemic, and its economic and health consequences. Part 2 reviews the history of tobacco control to date and addresses the current global strategy, based on the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the MPOWER package of interventions. Part 2 ends with a consideration of scenarios for the future of the pandemic.
- SourceAvailable from: Frank Doyle
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- "Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death worldwide and accounts for 6 million deaths annually  . According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, smoking causes 90% of lung cancer deaths and 80% of deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). "
ABSTRACT: To systematically review the impact of depression on subsequent smoking cessation in prospective studies of chronic respiratory patients. A systematic search of electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL) was conducted to identify prospective studies of chronic respiratory patients that measured depression at baseline and smoking status at follow-up, dating from 1st January 1990 to 21st February 2014. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between baseline depressive symptoms and subsequent smoking cessation was estimated from available data using random effects meta-analysis. A total of 1314 citations were retrieved and 197 articles were further evaluated by two reviewers. Seven articles provided sufficient data to estimate the association between depressive symptoms and subsequent smoking cessation. Those with elevated depressive symptoms were significantly less likely to quit smoking at follow-up than those not reporting elevated depressive symptoms (SMD=-.31, 95% CI -.43 to -.19; I(2)=0%, P=.506). The association between depression and subsequent smoking was poorly reported or omitted in most studies. However, the available evidence suggests that depression decreases the likelihood that patients with chronic respiratory conditions will quit smoking. Future research is needed to determine how best to manage depression and smoking cessation in this population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.General Hospital Psychiatry 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2015.05.002 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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- "Lung cancer continues to present a dramatic clinical burden, accounting for nearly 14% of all new cancers diagnosed in the United States.1,2 Cigarette smoking (CS) alone contributes to more than two-thirds of lung carcinomas including small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).3–5 Among all the critical signaling pathways involved, factors contributing to tumor escape mechanisms and host immunosuppression are emerging as important events in promoting tumor growth.6–9 "
ABSTRACT: Pro-oxidative stressors including cigarette smoke (CS) generate novel lipids with platelet-activated factor-receptor (PAF-R) agonistic activity mediate systemic immunosuppression, one of the most recognized events in promoting carcinogenesis. Our previous studies have established that these oxi-dized-PAF-R-agonists augment murine B16F10 melanoma tumor growth in a PAF-R-dependent manner because of its effects on host immunity. As CS generates PAF-R agonists, the current studies sought to determine the impact of PAF-R agonists on lung cancer growth and metastasis. Using the murine Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC1) model, we demonstrate that treatment of C57BL/6 mice with a PAF-R agonist augments tumor growth and lung metastasis in a PAF-R-dependent manner as these findings were not seen in PAF-R-deficient mice. Importantly, this effect was because of host rather than tumor cells PAF-R dependent as LLC1 cells do not express functional PAF-R. These findings indicate that experimental lung cancer progression can be modulated by the PAF system.Cancer Growth and Metastasis 06/2014; 7(4265-CGM-Systemic-Platelet-activating-Factor-Receptor-Activation-Augments-Exper.pdf):27-32. DOI:10.4137/cgm.s14501
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- "The increase prevalence of tobacco use with age poses major health challenges. Like cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, cigar, and pipe smoking all contribute to addiction, cancers, heart disease, and respiratory conditions [7,8,17-20]. Due to related changes in health status [17,21,22], tobacco use affects older adults by exacerbating existing diseases, causing poorer physical functioning, prompting costly treatment use, and increasing mortality [23,24]. Cessation of tobacco use is critical for older adults because it reduces functional impairments and mortality associated with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases [17,24]. "
ABSTRACT: Tobacco use over the life-course threatens to increase disease burden in older adulthood, including lower income countries like Ghana. This paper describes demographic, socioeconomic, health risks and life satisfaction indices related to tobacco use among older adults in Ghana. This work was based on the World Health Organization's multi-country Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), conducted in six countries including Ghana. Wave one of SAGE in Ghana was conducted in 2007-2008 as collaboration between WHO and the University of Ghana Medical School through the Department of Community Health. A nationally representative sample of 4305 older adults aged 50 years and above were interviewed. Associations between tobacco consumption and sociodemographic, socioeconomic, health risk and life satisfaction were evaluated using chi-square and odds ratio (OR). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex and other variables, were conducted to determine predictors of tobacco consumption in older persons. Overall prevalence of current daily smokers among older adults in Ghana was 7.6%. Tobacco use (i.e. ever used tobacco) was associated with older males, (AOR = 1.10, CI 1.05-1.15), older adults residing in rural locations (AOR = 1.37, CI 1.083-1.724), and older adults who used alcohol (AOR = 1.13, CI 0.230-2.418). Tobacco use was also associated (although not statistically significant per p-values) with increased self-reporting of angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, diabetes, hypertension, and stroke. Older adults who used tobacco and with increased health risks, tended to be without health insurance (AOR = 1.41, CI 1.111-1.787). Satisfaction with life and daily living was much lower for those who use tobacco. Regional differences existed in tobacco use; the three northern regions (Upper East, Northern and Upper West) had higher proportions of tobacco use among older adults in the country. Quitting tobacco use was higher in the 70+ years age group, in women, among urban residents and in those with at least secondary education. Quitting tobacco use also increased with increasing income levels. Tobacco use among older adults in Ghana was associated with older men living in rural locations, chronic ill-health and reduced life satisfaction. A high proportion of older adults have stopped using tobacco, demonstrating the possibilities for effective public health interventions. Health risk reduction strategies through targeted anti-smoking health campaigns, improvement in access to health and social protection (such as health insurance) will reduce health risks among older persons who use tobacco.BMC Public Health 10/2013; 13(1):979. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-979 · 2.32 Impact Factor