Global Economic and Health Benefits of Tobacco Control: Part 1
ABSTRACT Although the risks of tobacco smoking have been known for decades, the pandemic of tobacco use continues. There are an estimated 1.3 billion smokers worldwide, along with millions more using various oral tobacco products. Recent global estimates place the mortality burden from tobacco use at over 6 million annually, with nearly two-thirds of these deaths occurring in developing countries. If current patterns persist, there will be an estimated 1 billion deaths from tobacco during the twenty-first century. Part 1 of this two-part paper provides an overview of the tobacco pandemic, the scope of the pandemic, and its economic and health consequences. Part 2 reviews the history of tobacco control to date and addresses the current global strategy, based on the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the MPOWER package of interventions. Part 2 ends with a consideration of scenarios for the future of the pandemic.
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ABSTRACT: A smoker's risk of diseases and death from smoking is closely related to his/her smoking duration. But little is known about the average length of smoking and the association between smoking duration and socio-economic status (SES) among Chinese smokers. A sample of male ever smokers (N = 2,637) aged 18+ years was drawn from the 2006 China Health and Nutrition Survey to examine the average length of smoking and socioeconomic differentials in smoking duration. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to obtain median smoking duration. Log-logistic regression models were employed to estimate the relative duration of smoking, adjusted for demographic characteristics, smoking history, and health status. Results showed that Chinese male ever smokers aged 18 years and older had a median duration of smoking of 58 years (95% CI: 56-61). Male ever smokers with a lower status job (i.e. farmers, manual and skilled workers, service workers, and office staff) had a significantly longer duration of smoking than those with a professional or administrative job after adjusted for demographic characteristics, smoking history, and health status. Individuals who earned the lowest income and who had no education or were being illiterate smoked for 11% and 14% longer, respectively, relative to those who had the highest income or who had college or above education. The findings demonstrated the problem of long smoking duration and a pattern of social disparities in smoking duration among Chinese male smokers. Social disparities in smoking behavior may exacerbate the already existing social inequalities in health. Thus, policies and interventions to promote smoking cessation should pay more attention to disadvantaged social groups.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0117354. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117354 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the population attributable risks (PARs) between cigarette smoking and deaths of all causes, all cancers, lung cancer and other chronic diseases in urban Shanghai. In total, 61,480 men aged 40-74 years from 2002 to 2006 and 74,941 women aged 40-70 years from 1997 to 2000 were recruited to undergo baseline surveys in urban Shanghai, with response rates of 74.0% and 92.3%, respectively. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of deaths associated with cigarette smoking. PARs and 95% CIs for deaths were estimated from smoking exposure rates and the estimated RRs. Cigarette smoking was responsible for 23.9% (95% CI: 19.4-28.3%) and 2.4% (95% CI: 1.6-3.2%) of all deaths in men and women, respectively, in our study population. Respiratory disease had the highest PAR in men [37.5% (95% CI: 21.5-51.6%)], followed by cancer [31.3% (95% CI: 24.6-37.7%)] and cardiovascular disease (CVD) [24.1% (95% CI: 16.7-31.2%)]. While the top three PARs were 12.7% (95% CI: 6.1-19.3%), 4.0% (95% CI: 2.4-5.6%), and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.0-2.3%), for respiratory disease, CVD, and cancer, respectively in women. For deaths of lung cancer, the PAR of smoking was 68.4% (95% CI: 58.2-76.5%) in men. In urban Shanghai, 23.9% and 2.4% of all deaths in men and women could have been prevented if no people had smoked in the area. Effective control programs against cigarette smoking should be strongly advocated to reduce the increasing smoking-related death burden.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Home smoking bans (HSBs) reduce children's secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe), a contributor to health disparities. General psychosocial characteristics and SHSe beliefs and behaviors within the family may relate to HSB existence. This study's aim was to identify general psychosocial characteristics and SHSe beliefs associated with HSB presence and lower SHSe among children living with a smoker. Methods: Caregivers (n=269) of Head Start preschool students (age 1-6 years) living with a smoker reported on HSBs, caregiver depressive symptoms and stress, family routines, SHSe beliefs, and household smoking characteristics. SHSe biomarkers included air nicotine in two areas of the home and child salivary cotinine. Results: One-quarter of families reported complete HSBs, and HSBs were more common among non-smoking (37%) versus smoking caregivers (21%; p<0.01). Perceived importance of HSBs differed between non-smoking (9.7±1.0) versus smoking caregivers (9.1±2.0; p<0.01). Smoking caregivers, more smokers in the home, and lower self-efficacy and intent to implement an HSB were consistently associated with lower likelihood of HSB existence and children's higher SHSe. Caregiver SHSe beliefs were more consistently associated with HSBs and SHSe than were general psychosocial factors. Conclusions: Despite greater HSB likelihood and higher perceived importance of HSBs among non-smoking versus smoking primary caregivers, SHSe reduction self-efficacy and intent are protective for Head Start students at high-risk for exposure. Pediatric healthcare providers and early education professionals may be able to support SHSe reduction efforts (e.g., smoking cessation, HSB implementation) and reduce children's SHSe with counseling strategies to address caregivers' HSB self-efficacy, intent, and related behaviors. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.Nicotine & Tobacco Research 12/2014; DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntu250 · 2.81 Impact Factor