Article

Interleukin-10 Promoter Polymorphisms Influence HIV-1 Susceptibility and Primary HIV-1 Pathogenesis

Hasso Plattner Research Laboratory, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 5.78). 07/2009; 200(3):448-52. DOI: 10.1086/600072
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Interleukin (IL)-10 directly inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication, but it may also promote viral persistence by inactivation of effector immune mechanisms. Here, we show in an African cohort that individuals with genotypes associated with high IL-10 production at 2 promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (-1082 and -592) were less likely to become HIV-1 infected but had significantly higher median plasma viral loads during the acute phase (<or=3 months after infection). However, as the infection progressed, the association between genotype and median viral load was reversed. Thus, IL-10 may influence HIV-1 susceptibility and pathogenesis, but effects on the latter may differ according to the infection phase.

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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a multifunctional cytokine produced by macrophages, monocytes, and T-helper cells. Two polymorphisms at positions -592 and -1082 have been associated with HIV susceptibility. However, their associations with susceptibility to HIV and its co-infections among intravenous drug users (IDUs) are largely unknown. A total of 345 IDUs were recruited. Of the 173 HIV negative IDUs, 20 were classified as highly exposed HIV seronegative subjects (HESNs). A control group consisted of 496 blood donors; all HIV, HCV, and HBV negative. The IL-10 -592C/A and -1082A/G were determined using TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Of the IDUs, 50% were HIV positive, 89% HCV positive, 67% HBV positive and 41% had triple infection. IL-10 -592C allele and -1082A allele were the most common and the -1082 AG/-592CC was the most common genotype pair. All HESNs exhibited -1082A allele as compared to 81.4% of the HIV positive IDUs and 79% of donors (p=0.029 and p=0.019, respectively). None of HESNs had GG/CC genotype pair compared with 18.6% of HIV+ IDUs and 21.0% of donors (p=0.029 and p=0.019, respectively). The possession of -592AC and genotype pair AG/AC were associated with the decreased odds of HBV infection (OR=0.28; 95% CI 0.09-0.87; p=0.028 and OR=0.19; 95% CI 0.06-0.61; p=0.052, respectively). The presence of low producing IL-10 -1082A and -592A alleles and their containing genetic variants protect highly exposed IDUs against acquisition of HIV and HBV infections. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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