Covalently grafted poly(ethylene oxide) coatings have been widely studied for use in biomedical applications, particularly for the reduction of protein and other biomolecule adsorption. However, many of these studies have not characterized the hydrated structure of the coatings. This new study uses a combination of silica colloid probe interaction force measurements using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to determine the grafting density and hydrated layer structure of monomethoxy poly(ethylene oxide) aldehyde layers, covalently grafted onto amine plasma polymer surfaces, and their interactions with silica surfaces. For high grafting densities, purely repulsive interactions were measured as expected for densely grafted polymer brushes. These interactions could be described by theoretical expectations for compression of one polymer brush layer. However, at lower grafting densities, attractive interactions were observed at larger separation distances, originating from bridging interactions due to adsorption of the PEO chains on the surface of the silica colloid probe. This is a new finding indicating that the coupled PEO molecules have sufficient conformational freedom to interact strongly with an adjacent surface or, for example, protein molecules for which there is an affinity. The attractive interactions could be removed by grafting an additional PEO layer onto the silica colloid probe. Protein adsorption measurements confirmed that at high grafting densities, the amount of adsorbed protein on the PEO grafted surfaces was greatly reduced, to the order of the detection limit for the XPS technique.
"The antifouling properties come mainly from the hydrophilic part (PEO/PEG) that is an integral part of the copolymer. PEO, for example, has been shown to be a very effective material to prevent adhesion of biomacromolecules and bacterial cells due to its hydrophilicity, large excluded volume, and unique ability to coordinate surrounding water molecules in an aqueous medium  . Similarly, PEG provides resistance to protein adsorption and cell adhesion by lowering the polymerwater interfacial energy  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work we report surface modification of commercial reverse osmosis membranes by depositing ultrathin copolymer coatings, which could potentially enhance the biofouling resistance of RO membranes. Hydrophilic monomer hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and a hydrophobic monomer, perfluorodecyl acrylate (PFDA) were copolymerized directly on the active layer of commercial aromatic polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes using an initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) technique. Attenuated total reflective Fourier transform infrared spectra (ATR-FTIR) verified the successful modification of the membrane surfaces as a new FTIR adsorption band around 1730 cm− 1 corresponding to carbonyl groups in the copolymer film appeared after the deposition. X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis also confirmed the presence of the copolymer film on the membrane surface by showing strong fluorine peaks emanating from the fluorinated alkyl side chains of the PFA molecules. Contact angle measurements with deionized water showed the modified membrane surfaces to be initially very hydrophobic but quickly assumed a hydrophilic character within few minutes. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) revealed that the deposited films were smooth and conformal as the surface topology of the underlying membrane surface remained virtually unchanged after the deposition. FESEM images of the top surface also showed that the typical ridge-and-valley structure associated with polyamide remained intact after the deposition. Short-term permeation tests using DI water and 2000 ppm NaCl water showed that the deposited copolymer coatings had negligible effect on permeate water flux and salt rejection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relaxation behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), spin-coated on a silicon wafer, at the water interface was examined by lateral force microscopy as a function of temperature and scanning rate. Even in water, the lateral force peak which was assigned to the segmental motion of PMMA plasticized by water molecules was clearly observed in the temperature domain. The apparent activation energy for the plasticized alpha(a)-relaxation process was much smaller than those for the original alpha(a)-relaxation processes at the intact surface and in the bulk. The depth profile of the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of the PMMA film in water was obtained, showing that T(g) decreases with proximity to the water phase. The T(g) depression observed here was best explained in terms of the water content of the film, rather than a confinement effect.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 02/2010; 114(10):3457-60. DOI:10.1021/jp909373g · 3.30 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.