End terminal, poly(ethylene oxide) graft layers: surface forces and protein adsorption.
ABSTRACT Covalently grafted poly(ethylene oxide) coatings have been widely studied for use in biomedical applications, particularly for the reduction of protein and other biomolecule adsorption. However, many of these studies have not characterized the hydrated structure of the coatings. This new study uses a combination of silica colloid probe interaction force measurements using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to determine the grafting density and hydrated layer structure of monomethoxy poly(ethylene oxide) aldehyde layers, covalently grafted onto amine plasma polymer surfaces, and their interactions with silica surfaces. For high grafting densities, purely repulsive interactions were measured as expected for densely grafted polymer brushes. These interactions could be described by theoretical expectations for compression of one polymer brush layer. However, at lower grafting densities, attractive interactions were observed at larger separation distances, originating from bridging interactions due to adsorption of the PEO chains on the surface of the silica colloid probe. This is a new finding indicating that the coupled PEO molecules have sufficient conformational freedom to interact strongly with an adjacent surface or, for example, protein molecules for which there is an affinity. The attractive interactions could be removed by grafting an additional PEO layer onto the silica colloid probe. Protein adsorption measurements confirmed that at high grafting densities, the amount of adsorbed protein on the PEO grafted surfaces was greatly reduced, to the order of the detection limit for the XPS technique.
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ABSTRACT: Addition of ionized terminal groups to PEG graft layers may cause additional interfacial forces to modulate the net interfacial interactions between PEG graft layers and proteins. In this study we investigated the effect of terminal sulfonate groups, characterizing PEG-aldehyde (PEG-CHO) and sulfonated PEG (PEG-SO(3)) graft layers by XPS and colloid probe AFM interaction force measurements as a function of ionic strength, in order to determine surface forces relevant to protein resistance and models of bio-interfacial interaction of such graft coatings. On the PEG-CHO surface the measured interaction force does not alter with ionic strength, typical of a repulsive steric barrier coating. An analogous repulsive interaction force of steric origin was also observed on the PEG-SO(3) graft coating; however, the net interaction force changed with ionic strength. Interaction forces were modelled by steric and electrical double layer interaction theories, with fitting to a scaling theory model enabling determination of the spacing and stretching of the grafted chains. Albumin, fibrinogen, and lysozyme did not adsorb on the PEG-CHO coating, whereas the PEG graft with terminal sulfonate groups showed substantial adsorption of albumin but not fibrinogen or lysozyme from 0.15M salt solutions. Under lower ionic strength conditions albumin adsorption was again minimized as a result of the increased electrical double-layer interaction observed with the PEG-SO(3) modified surface. This unique and unexpected adsorption behaviour of albumin provides an alternative explanation to the "negative cilia" model used by others to rationalize observed thromboresistance on PEG-sulfonate coatings.Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces 01/2013; 106C:102-108. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Modified tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) surfaces have been fabricated by attachment of recombinant polypeptides based on Drosophila melanogaster resilin and the Anopheles gambiae resilin-like protein. The D. melanogaster polypeptide (Rec-1) was from the first exon of resilin and consisted of 17 very similar repeats of a 15 residue sequence. The A. gambiae polypeptide consisted of 16 repeats of an 11 residue consensus sequence (An16). Polypeptides were attached to the TCP surface through tyrosine-based photo-crosslinking using blue light in combination with (Ru(II)(bpy)3)Cl2 and sodium persulfate. TCP that has been manufactured by mild oxidation has surface phenolic groups that are believed to participate in this crosslinking process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle analyses were used to demonstrate polypeptide binding. At higher coating concentrations of Rec-1 and An16, the surface was passivated and fibroblasts no longer attached and spread. At coating concentrations of 1 mg ml(-1) for Rec-1 and 0.1 mg ml(-1) for An16, where the surface was fully passivated against fibroblast attachment, addition of a cell attachment peptide, cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Tyr-Lys) during coating and photo-crosslinking at >0.1 mg ml(-1), led to the restoration of fibroblast binding that was dependent on the integrin αV chain.Biofabrication 06/2013; 5(3):035005. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Plasma polymer films (PPF) find increasing applications in many fields due to the unique combination of properties of this class of materials. Among other notable features arising from the specifics of plasma polymerization synthesis, a high surface reactivity can be advantageously used when exploited carefully. It is related to the presence of free radicals generated during deposition process through manifold molecular bond scissions in the energetic plasma environment. In ambient atmosphere these radicals undergo auto-oxidation reactions resulting in undesired polymer ageing. However, when the reactivity of surface radicals is preserved and they are put in direct contact with a chemical group of interest, a specific surface functionalization or grafting of polymeric chains can be achieved. Therefore, the control of the surface free radical density of a plasma polymer is crucially important for a successful grafting. The present investigation focuses on the influence of the hydrocarbon precursor type, aromatic vs. aliphatic, on the generation and concentration of free radicals on the surface of the PPF. Benzene and cyclohexane were chosen as model precursors. First, in-situ FTIR analysis of the plasma phase supplemented by Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations allowed the main fragmentation routes of precursor molecules in the discharge to be identified as a function of energy input. Using nitric oxide (NO) chemical labeling in combination with XPS analysis a quantitative evaluation of concentration of surface free radicals as a function of input power has been assessed for both precursors. Different evolutions of the surface free radical density for the benzene- and cyclohexane-based PPF, namely, a continuous increase versus stabilization to a plateau, are attributed to different plasma polymerization mechanisms and resulting structures as illustrated by PPF characterization findings. The control of the surface free radical density can be achieved through the stabilization of radicals due to the proximity of incorporated aromatic rings. Ageing tests highlighted the inevitable random oxidation of plasma polymers upon exposure to air and the necessity of free radical preservation for a controlled surface functionalization.ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 06/2014; · 5.01 Impact Factor