[First results of PET / CT-guided secondary lymph node surgery on patients with a PSA relapse after radical prostatectomy].
ABSTRACT CT and MRT are not applicable for the early detection of lymph node (LN) recurrence in prostate cancer. The PET / CT ((11)C-, (18)F-choline) technique can detect lesions >or= 5 mm and allows their topographic localisation. We have analysed positive (11)C-choline PET / CT LN findings in the case of a PSA increase after radical prostatectomy (RPE) histologicaly and documented the developing of PSA.
8 patients with PSA relapse after RPE and lymphadenedtomy (LA) were diagnosed as having LNM by means of (11)C-choline PET / CT. Using PET / CT, metastasis suspicious and nearby LN were openly dissected. Histological and PET / CT results were compared and the postoperative PSA-development was examined.
Of the metastasis suspicious LN (11) 9 were histologically reconfirmed. All additionally removed LN (12) were correct negative. LNM were mostly (7 of 9) located in the iliaca interna area and pararectal. 6 of 7 patients with histological metastasis detection showed a PSA response. 3 of 6 patients with single metastasis had complete PSA remission (< 0.01 ng / ml, maximum follow-up: 28 months) without adjuvant therapy.
(11)C-choline PET / CT could detect LNM with high specificity in our collective. These often lie beyond standard LA area, where they were primarily only resected by use of extended or sentinel LA. Because 3 patients with single LNM reached a complete PSA remission (< 0.01 ng / ml) without adjuvant therapy, the selected collective seems to benefit from secondary LN surgery. Whether or not individual patients can be cured by this surgery has to be demonstrated in a longitudinal study. However, an optimal imaging and experience in LN surgery have to be assured.
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ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: The role of positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) in prostate cancer (PCa) imaging is still debated, although guidelines for their use have emerged over the last few years. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and conduct a meta-analysis of the available evidence of PET and PET/CT using 11C-choline and 18F-fluorocholine as tracers in imaging PCa patients in staging and restaging settings. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science (by citation of reference) were searched. Reference lists of review articles and included articles were checked to complement electronic searches. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: In staging patients with proven but untreated PCa, the results of the meta-analysis on a per-patient basis (10 studies, n = 637) showed pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 84% (95% confidence interval [CI], 68-93%), 79% (95% CI, 53-93%), and 20.4 (95% CI, 9.9-42.0), respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 4.02 (95% CI, 1.73-9.31) and 0.20 (95% CI, 0.11-0.37), respectively. On a per-lesion basis (11 studies, n = 5117), these values were 66% (95% CI, 56-75%), 92% (95% CI, 78-97%), and 22.7 (95% CI, 8.9-58.0), respectively, for pooled sensitivity, specificity, and DOR; and 8.29 (95% CI, 3.05-22.54) and 0.36 (95% CI, 0.29-0.46), respectively, for positive and negative likelihood ratios. In restaging patients with biochemical failure after local treatment with curative intent, the meta-analysis results on a per-patient basis (12 studies, n = 1055) showed pooled sensitivity, specificity, and DOR of 85% (95% CI, 79-89%), 88% (95% CI, 73-95%), and 41.4 (95% CI, 19.7-86.8), respectively; the positive and negative likelihood ratios were 7.06 (95% CI, 3.06-16.27) and 0.17 (95% CI, 0.13-0.22), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PET and PET/CT imaging with 11C-choline and 18F-fluorocholine in restaging of patients with biochemical failure after local treatment for PCa might help guide further treatment decisions. In staging of patients with proven but untreated, high-risk PCa, there is limited but promising evidence warranting further studies. However, the current evidence shows crucial limitations in terms of its applicability in common clinical scenarios.European Urology 04/2013; · 10.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is a commonly accepted belief that cancer cells modify their transcriptional state during the progression of the disease. We propose that the progression of cancer cells towards malignant phenotypes can be efficiently tracked using high-throughput technologies that follow the gradual changes observed in the gene expression profiles by employing Shannon's mathematical theory of communication. Methods based on Information Theory can then quantify the divergence of cancer cells' transcriptional profiles from those of normally appearing cells of the originating tissues. The relevance of the proposed methods can be evaluated using microarray datasets available in the public domain but the method is in principle applicable to other high-throughput methods. Using melanoma and prostate cancer datasets we illustrate how it is possible to employ Shannon Entropy and the Jensen-Shannon divergence to trace the transcriptional changes progression of the disease. We establish how the variations of these two measures correlate with established biomarkers of cancer progression. The Information Theory measures allow us to identify novel biomarkers for both progressive and relatively more sudden transcriptional changes leading to malignant phenotypes. At the same time, the methodology was able to validate a large number of genes and processes that seem to be implicated in the progression of melanoma and prostate cancer. We thus present a quantitative guiding rule, a new unifying hallmark of cancer: the cancer cell's transcriptome changes lead to measurable observed transitions of Normalized Shannon Entropy values (as measured by high-throughput technologies). At the same time, tumor cells increment their divergence from the normal tissue profile increasing their disorder via creation of states that we might not directly measure. This unifying hallmark allows, via the the Jensen-Shannon divergence, to identify the arrow of time of the processes from the gene expression profiles, and helps to map the phenotypical and molecular hallmarks of specific cancer subtypes. The deep mathematical basis of the approach allows us to suggest that this principle is, hopefully, of general applicability for other diseases.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(8):e12262. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction. To evaluate whether secondary resection of lymph node (LN) metastases (LNMs) can result in PSA remission, we analysed the PSA outcome after resection of LNM detected on PET/CT in patients with biochemical failure. Materials and Methods. 11 patients with PSA relapse (mean 3.02 ng/mL, range 0.5-9.55 ng/mL) after radical prostatectomy without adjuvant therapy were included. Suspicious LN (1-3) detected on choline PET/CT and nearby LN were openly dissected (09/04-02/11). The PSA development was examined. Histological and PET/CT findings were compared. Results. 9 of 10 patients with histologically confirmed LNM showed a PSA response. 4 of 9 patients with single LNM had a complete permanent PSA remission (mean followup 31.8, range 1-48 months). Of metastasis-suspicious LNs (14) 12 could be histologically confirmed. The additionally removed 25 LNs were all correctly negative. Conclusions. The complete PSA remissions after secondary resection of single LNM argue for a feasible therapeutic benefit without adjuvant therapy. For this purpose the choline PET/CT is in spite of its limitations currently the most reliable routinely available diagnostic tool.Advances in Urology 01/2012; 2012:609612.