Herpes simplex virus type 2 and syphilis infections with HIV: An evolving synergy in transmission and prevention
Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA. Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
(Impact Factor: 4.68).
08/2009; 4(4):294-9. DOI: 10.1097/COH.0b013e32832c1881
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and syphilis are associated with HIV infection. The purpose of this review is to summarize the advances in the relationship of HSV-2 and syphilis with HIV, highlighting intervention trials to prevent HIV acquisition and transmission.
HIV acquisition has often been linked to genital ulcers due to HSV-2 and syphilis. The latest pathophysiological studies have continued to elucidate the relationship between HSV-2, syphilis and HIV, establishing that both syphilitic and HSV-2-infected tissue have increased numbers of chemokine receptor 5-expressing T cells, and several models have further emphasized the viral synergy between HSV-2 and HIV. In clinical trials, HSV suppressive therapy decreased HIV RNA levels that might affect transmission, but two trials have failed to prevent HIV acquisition. Male circumcision, however, prevents both HIV and HSV-2 acquisition.
Genital ulcers from HSV-2 and syphilis are associated with HIV acquisition. The exact role for these HIV cofactors is still unknown and exemplified by the failure of HSV suppressive therapy to decrease HIV acquisition. Male circumcision, however, reduces HSV-2 acquisition. With several HSV suppressive trials to prevent HIV transmission and disease progression currently ongoing, the future promises to provide more critical information for the control of HIV infection.
Available from: Ayesha Bm Kharsany
- "The added important finding of this trial was the absence of viral resistance, its safety and more importantly, the effectiveness of tenofovir gel to reduce the acquisition of HSV-2 infections by 51%. This finding is important as the risk of HIV acquisition increases to a large extent in women who are HSV-2 infected (Tobian & Quinn, 2009; Wald & Link, 2002). "
HIV-infection - Impact, Awareness and Social Implications of living with HIV/AIDS, 10/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-343-9
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ABSTRACT: This paper investigates optimal classification of lightning strike maps (LSMs), using regular and fuzzy K-means classifiers. It also describes a novel approach for measurements of the physical LSMs. Lightning strikes are physical phenomena, which have adverse effects on power transmission. Modelling and classification of the LSMs can lead to prediction of their time-space behaviour, and enhance the protection of the existing and new power systems and transmission lines. Prediction requires the classification of the simulated results and physical data, and comparing them together using characterization. Since the LSMs are highly nonlinear, nonstationary, and stochastic, ordinary models and analyses are incapable of simulating and characterizing these phenomena. Since self-affinity of such maps is an indication of multifractality, percolation models and complexity measures such as the Renyi fractal dimension spectrum (RS) and Mandelbrot singularity spectrum (MS) are utilized. The data of the LSMs have been obtained through the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) for Manitoba in the year 2002. The data have been characterized by both the RS and MS. Features have been extracted using the RS. Classification employed the regular and fuzzy K-means methods. For each classification method, 50 tests have been utilized, and classification performance for 2 to 15 classes has been investigated through Davis-Bouldin criterion. The fuzzy K-means classifier identified 6 optimal classes with a confidence level of 0.78, while the regular K-means algorithm could not distinguish the classes.
Fuzzy Information, 2004. Processing NAFIPS '04. IEEE Annual Meeting of the; 07/2004
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ABSTRACT: Circumcision is one of the oldest surgical procedures in the world. Despite its history, the medical benefits and risks of circumcision remain controversial. Although neonatal circumcision reduces the development and recurrence rates of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children, routine circumcision is only recommended in children with high risk of UTI. Further large-scale studies are required to prove if topical steroid hormones are an alternative therapy to circumcision in the prevention of pediatric UTI. In men, it is well-established that circumcision can reduce the risks of transmitting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human papilloma virus, type 2 herpes simplex virus, and syphilis. The World Health Organization and the United nations Program on HIV/AIDS has recommended promotion of circumcision in areas with a high prevalence of heterosexually transmitted HIV. Since circumcision only partially prevents STD, opponents worry that risk compensation (not using a condom and increased sexual partners) may overwhelmingly reduce the protective effects of circumcision. Parents and patients need to weigh the benefits and risks of male circumcision to make well-informed decisions about this procedure.
Tzu Chi Medical Journal 09/2009; 21(3):185-189. DOI:10.1016/S1016-3190(09)60037-9
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