Switching to second-line antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings: comparison of programmes with and without viral load monitoring

Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM), University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
AIDS (London, England) (Impact Factor: 6.56). 07/2009; 23(14):1867-74. DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832e05b2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In high-income countries, viral load is routinely measured to detect failure of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and guide switching to second-line ART. Viral load monitoring is not generally available in resource-limited settings. We examined switching from nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line regimens to protease inhibitor-based regimens in Africa, South America and Asia.
Multicohort study of 17 ART programmes. All sites monitored CD4 cell count and had access to second-line ART and 10 sites monitored viral load. We compared times to switching, CD4 cell counts at switching and obtained adjusted hazard ratios for switching (aHRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from random-effects Weibull models.
A total of 20 113 patients, including 6369 (31.7%) patients from 10 programmes with access to viral load monitoring, were analysed; 576 patients (2.9%) switched. Low CD4 cell counts at ART initiation were associated with switching in all programmes. Median time to switching was 16.3 months [interquartile range (IQR) 10.1-26.6] in programmes with viral load monitoring and 21.8 months (IQR 14.0-21.8) in programmes without viral load monitoring (P < 0.001). Median CD4 cell counts at switching were 161 cells/microl (IQR 77-265) in programmes with viral load monitoring and 102 cells/microl (44-181) in programmes without viral load monitoring (P < 0.001). Switching was more common in programmes with viral load monitoring during months 7-18 after starting ART (aHR 1.38; 95% CI 0.97-1.98), similar during months 19-30 (aHR 0.97; 95% CI 0.58-1.60) and less common during months 31-42 (aHR 0.29; 95% CI 0.11-0.79).
In resource-limited settings, switching to second-line regimens tends to occur earlier and at higher CD4 cell counts in ART programmes with viral load monitoring compared with programmes without viral load monitoring.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives The proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS in the ageing population (> 50 years old) is increasing. We aimed to explore the relationship between older age and treatment outcomes in HIV-positive persons from the Asia Pacific region.Methods Patients from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) and the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) were included in the analysis. We used survival methods to assess the association between older age and all-cause mortality, as well as time to treatment modification. We used regression analyses to evaluate changes in CD4 counts after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation and determined the odds of detectable viral load, up to 24 months of treatment.ResultsA total of 7142 patients were included in these analyses (60% in TAHOD and 40% in AHOD), of whom 25% were > 50 years old. In multivariable analyses, those aged > 50 years were at least twice as likely to die as those aged 30–39 years [hazard ratio (HR) for 50–59 years: 2.27; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34–3.83; HR for > 60 years: 4.28; 95% CI 2.42–7.55]. The effect of older age on CD4 count changes was insignificant (p-trend = 0.06). The odds of detectable viral load after cART initiation decreased with age (p-trend = < 0.0001). The effect of older age on time to first treatment modification was insignificant (p-trend = 0.21). We found no statistically significant differences in outcomes between AHOD and TAHOD participants for all endpoints examined.Conclusions The associations between older age and typical patient outcomes in HIV-positive patients from the Asia Pacific region are similar in AHOD and TAHOD. Our data indicate that ‘age effects’ traverse the resource-rich and resource-limited divide and that future ageing-related findings might be applicable to each setting.
    HIV Medicine 12/2014; 16(3). DOI:10.1111/hiv.12188 · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Roughly 4% of the 1.25 million patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Asia are using second-line therapy. To maximize patient benefit and regional resources, it is important to optimize the timing of second-line ART initiation and use the most effective compounds available. HIV-positive patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database who had used second-line ART for ≥6 months were included. ART use and rates and predictors of second-line treatment failure were evaluated. There were 302 eligible patients. Most were male (76.5%) and exposed to HIV via heterosexual contact (71.5%). Median age at second-line initiation was 39.2 years, median CD4 cell count was 146 cells per cubic millimeter, and median HIV viral load was 16,224 copies per milliliter. Patients started second-line ART before 2007 (n = 105), 2007-2010 (n = 147) and after 2010 (n = 50). Ritonavir-boosted lopinavir and atazanavir accounted for the majority of protease inhibitor use after 2006. Median follow-up time on second-line therapy was 2.3 years. The rates of treatment failure and mortality per 100 patient/years were 8.8 (95% confidence interval: 7.1 to 10.9) and 1.1 (95% confidence interval: 0.6 to 1.9), respectively. Older age, high baseline viral load, and use of a protease inhibitor other than lopinavir or atazanavir were associated with a significantly shorter time to second-line failure. Increased access to viral load monitoring to facilitate early detection of first-line ART failure and subsequent treatment switch is important for maximizing the durability of second-line therapy in Asia. Although second-line ART is highly effective in the region, the reported rate of failure emphasizes the need for third-line ART in a small portion of patients.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 02/2015; 68(2):186-95. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000411 · 4.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HIV prevention strategies are moving towards reducing plasma HIV RNA viral load in all HIV-positive persons, including those undiagnosed, treatment naïve, on or off antiretroviral therapy. A proxy population for those undiagnosed are patients that present late to care with advanced HIV. The objectives of this analysis are to examine factors associated with patients presenting with advanced HIV, and establish rates of treatment interruption and modification after initiating ART. We deterministically linked records from the Australian HIV Observational Database to the Australian National HIV Registry to obtain information related to HIV diagnosis. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with advanced HIV diagnosis. We used survival methods to evaluate rates of ART initiation by diagnosis CD4 count strata and by calendar year of HIV diagnosis. Cox models were used to determine hazard of first ART treatment interruption (duration >30 days) and time to first major ART modification. Factors associated (p<0.05) with increased odds of advanced HIV diagnosis were sex, older age, heterosexual mode of HIV exposure, born overseas and rural-regional care setting. Earlier initiation of ART occurred at higher rates in later periods (2007-2012) in all diagnosis CD4 count groups. We found an 83% (69, 91%) reduction in the hazard of first treatment interruption comparing 2007-2012 versus 1996-2001 (p<0.001), and no difference in ART modification for patients diagnosed with advanced HIV. Recent HIV diagnoses are initiating therapy earlier in all diagnosis CD4 cell count groups, potentially lowering community viral load compared to earlier time periods. We found a marked reduction in the hazard of first treatment interruption, and found no difference in rates of major modification to ART by HIV presentation status in recent periods.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 01/2015; 18(1):19463. · 4.21 Impact Factor


Available from
Jun 5, 2014