Influence of partial and complete caponization on chicken meat quality
ABSTRACT Caponization is a surgical technique adopted to alter the sexual maturation of male chickens with the aim of improving the quality characteristics of carcass and meat. Under commercial conditions within each flock, about 10% of the birds usually result with incomplete caponization and are called slips. A trial was conducted to compare quality traits of breast and thigh meat from capons (n = 12), slips (n = 12), and cocks (unoperated birds; n = 12) (Hubbard x Golden Comet) reared together and processed at 180 d old under commercial conditions. Capons exhibited the highest (P < 0.01) values of breast and thigh meat lightness and yellowness as well as the lowest values of redness (P < 0.01) compared with cocks and slips. These variations in meat color were related to a lower concentration of heme pigments in both breast and thigh meat from capons. Capons and slips presented lower Allo-Kramer shear values of cooked breast meat (P < 0.05) in comparison with cocks. As for chemical composition, capons showed a higher content of total lipid, cholesterol, and ash both in breast and thigh meat. Total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were not strongly affected by caponization. However, capons exhibited a significantly higher (P < 0.01) content of linoleic and linolenic acids as well as a lower content of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids in respect to slips and cocks. Overall, this study indicated that caponization can affect the main meat quality traits with special regards to appearance (color), texture, and composition. Finally, it was found that slips present intermediate meat quality characteristics between capons and cocks.
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- "It is well recognised that heme pigments concentration in muscles largely influences the appearance of poultry meat (Fletcher, 2002). The negative correlation between redness and lightness in the PMJ and PMN is in agreement with Sirri et al. (2009) who found that positive correlations found between total heme pigments concentration and meat redness and the negative correlation between total heme pigments concentration and light- ness. "
ABSTRACT: The effects of flaxseed meal (FSM) feeding on the performance (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio), carcass character-istics and pectoral muscles fillets [major (PMJ) and minor (PMN)] quality [shear force, pH and cooking water loss percentage (CWLP)] and colour [redness (a*), lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*)] were evaluated in a factorial design experiment with five graded levels of FSM (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 g) and sex of broiler chickens from 21 to 39 days (d) of age. The addition of FSM to the diet did not affect the performance and carcass character-istics, but significantly (P<0.05) increased CWLP and reduced pH of the PMJ (80>20=0, and 80<60=40=20=0 g FSM/kg) and PMN (80>40=20=0 g and 80<60=20=0 g FSM/kg), and (P<0.01) increased a* value of the PMJ (80=60>40 g FSM/kg). The male birds had sig-nificantly (P<0.01) higher performance, L* value of the PMN and lower a* value of the PMN than females. The breast weight of males fed 20 g FSM/kg was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of females. However, higher dietary levels of FSM/kg increased breast weight of females when compared with those of males. It was concluded that the addition of up to 80 g FSM/kg to the diet during 21 to 39 d did not affect the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens, and that of 80 g FSM/kg increased CWLP and reduced pH of PMs. Sex of birds influenced the perform-ance and characteristics of PMs.10/2014; 13(4). DOI:10.4081/ijas.2014.3514
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- "At this age, heavy breeds should weigh approximately 450 g (Jacob and Mather, 2000). On the other hand, most of the slow-growing meattype chickens are caponized after 6 wk of age (Chen et al., 2000; Miguel et al., 2008; Rikimaru et al., 2009b; Sirri et al., 2009) because these chickens take longer to gain the recommended BW for testectomy. However, the tunica albuginea of the testes becomes hard when the birds are caponized at later stages, and this makes removing the testes a more difficult and time-consuming procedure (Rikimaru et al., 2009b). "
ABSTRACT: We developed a new tool for testectomy and investigated the efficiency with regard to caponizing time and growth performance in Hinai-jidori chickens, a popular breed of chicken in Japan. Hinai-jidori chicks were divided into 2-, 4-, and 8-wk caponized groups and an intact male group (20 birds/group) at 2 wk of age and were raised until 26 wk of age. The testes of the male chicks caponized at 8 wk of age were surgically removed from both sides using a Japanese traditional tool, whereas those of male chicks caponized at 2 and 4 wk of age were surgically removed from only one side using the new tool. Using the traditional method, caponization of an 8-wk-old chick was achieved in 324.6 s (5 min 24 s), whereas using the new method, caponization of 2- and 4-wk-old chicks was achieved in only 35.9 and 28.4 s, respectively. Moreover, at 10 and 18 wk of age, the chicks caponized at 4 wk of age were significantly heavier than the chicks caponized at 8 wk of age. The data suggest that the decrease in the daily weight gain caused by caponization at a younger age was less than that at an older age. We concluded that early caponization shortens the caponizing time significantly and improves the decrease in the daily weight gain after caponization, thereby enabling efficient capon production from slow-growing meat-type chickens at early stages of development.Poultry Science 01/2011; 90:1852-1857. DOI:10.3382/ps.2010-01270 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 1. Capons and intact male broilers were used to investigate the effects of caponisation on intramuscular fat and abdominal adipose tissue lipid content and fatty acid profile. 2. Capons had significantly higher total lipid content (P<0·05). 3. Neutral lipids were the major fractions in intramuscular and abdominal fat but their proportions differed significantly among groups and tissues (P<0·05). 4. The predominant saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in all samples were C16:0, C16:1 ω-9, C18:0, C18:1 ω-9, C18:1 ω-7, C18:2 ω-6 and C20:4 ω-6. 5. Caponisation resulted in a significant ω-6/ω-3, PUFA and PUFA/SFA ratio reduction as well as a significant increase in atherogenic and thrombogenic indices increase in intramuscular fat (P<0·05) without affecting their appropriate value for a healthy diet.British Poultry Science 06/2011; 52(3):310-7. DOI:10.1080/00071668.2011.581269 · 0.78 Impact Factor