Opioids for neonates receiving mechanical ventilation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the effect of opioid analgesics, compared to placebo, no drug, or other non-opioid analgesics or sedatives, on pain, duration of mechanical ventilation, mortality, growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes in newborn infants on mechanical ventilation.
This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Data sources used were Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases, and references from review articles. RCTs or quasi-RCTs comparing opioids to a control, or to other analgesics or sedatives in newborn infants on mechanical ventilation were reviewed.
A total of 13 studies on 1505 infants were included. Infants given opioids showed reduced Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) scores compared to the control group (weighted mean difference (WMD) -1.71, 95% CI -3.18 to -0.24). Heterogeneity was significantly high in all analyses of pain. Meta-analyses of mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation and long-term and short-term neurodevelopmental outcomes showed no statistically significant differences. Very preterm infants given morphine took significantly longer to reach full enteral feeding than those in control groups (WMD 2.10 days, 95% CI 0.35 to 3.85). One study that compared morphine with midazolam showed similar pain scores, but fewer adverse effects with morphine.
There is insufficient evidence to recommend routine use of opioids in mechanically ventilated newborns. Opioids should be used selectively, when indicated by clinical judgment and evaluation of pain indicators. If sedation is required, morphine is safer than midazolam.
- SourceAvailable from: Anna Fodor[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Opioids are among the world's oldest known drugs used mostly for pain relief, but recreational use is also widespread. A particularly important problem is opioid exposure in females, as their offspring can also be affected. Adverse intrauterine and postnatal environments can affect offspring development and may lead to various disabilities later in life. It is clear that repetitive painful experiences, such as randomly occurring invasive procedures during neonatal intensive care, can permanently alter neuronal and synaptic organization and therefore later behavior. At the same time, analgesic drugs can also be harmful, inducing neuronal apoptosis or withdrawal symptoms in the neonate and behavioral alterations in adulthood. Hence, risk-benefit ratios should be taken into consideration when pain relief is required during pregnancy or in neonates. Recreational use of opioids can also alter many aspects of life. Intrauterine opioid exposure has many toxic effects, inducing poor pregnancy outcomes due to underdevelopment, but it is believed that later negative consequences are more related to environmental factors such as a chaotic lifestyle and inadequate prenatal care. One of the crucial components is maternal care, which changes profoundly in addicted mothers. In substance-dependent mothers, pre- and postnatal care has special importance, and controlled treatment with a synthetic opioid (e.g., methadone) could be beneficial. We aimed to summarize and compare human and rodent data, as it is important to close the gap between scientific knowledge and societal policies. Special emphasis is given to gender differences in the sensitivity of offspring to perinatal opioid exposure.Life sciences 04/2014; · 2.56 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective:To test whether implementing a nursing-driven comfort protocol standardizes morphine use in one neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to examine how non-standard morphine (N-SM) relates to days of ventilation, days of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and length of stay (LOS).Study Design:This was a retrospective/prospective observational study using pharmacy records, medical records, and an outcomes database. Comfort protocol implementation began February 2011 and was applied to preterm, ventilated neonates <1500 grams. Pre- and post-implementation proportions of N-SM days were compared using the binomial test. A percent 'P'-chart spanning 30 quarters was constructed with statistical-process control analysis. Multivariable linear regression adjusting for acuity assessed the relationship between N-SM use and days of ventilation, TPN and LOS.Result:Hundred and thirty-four patients met inclusion criteria, 116 prior to and 18 after implementation. The proportion of patients given N-SM for one or more days decreased from 59 to 35% after protocol implementation (P=0.017). A 9-month period of decreased N-SM days was observed after protocol implementation. Controlling for acuity, each additional day of N-SM use was associated with 0.47 more days of ventilation (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26-0.69, P<0.001) and 0.52 more days of TPN (95% CI: 0.35-0.68, P<0.001). Exposure to N-SM was associated with 17 additional days of hospitalization (P=0.009, 95% CI: 4.5-30).Conclusion:Implementing a nursing-driven comfort protocol significantly reduced N-SM use. N-SM in the NICU is negatively associated with key clinical outcomes. Testing similar protocols in other settings is warranted.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 24 July 2014; doi:10.1038/jp.2014.131.Journal of perinatology: official journal of the California Perinatal Association 07/2014; · 1.59 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo y transversal realizado con profesionales de Enfermería que actúan en el área de Neonatología en los tres hospitales de Alfenas, Minas Gerais. Se objetivó describir las formas de evaluación del dolor del recién nacido utilizados por el personal de enfermería y analizar la práctica de la enfermería como el manejo del dolor del neonato. La recolección de datos fue hecha por medio de un formulario semiestructurado, entre agosto y septiembre de 2008, con 42 profesionales. El análisis fue hecho con el software SPSS, utilizando la estadística descriptiva y la prueba de correlación. Los entrevistados reconocen que el neonato es capaz de sentir dolor y esto se evalúa a través de alteraciones fisiológicas y de comportamiento, no hay utilización de escalas de evaluación del dolor estandarizadas en las instituciones. Para el manejo, realizan intervenciones farmacológicas y no farmacológicas. Hay necesidad de capacitar profesionales contribuyendo para la evaluación y manejo del dolor, para la promoción del cuidado integral al neonato.Escola Anna Nery. 08/2013; 17(3):439-445.