Article

Opioids for neonates receiving mechanical ventilation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Alessandro Manzoni Hospital, Lecco, Italy.
Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition (Impact Factor: 3.86). 07/2009; 95(4):F241-51. DOI: 10.1136/adc.2008.150318
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To evaluate the effect of opioid analgesics, compared to placebo, no drug, or other non-opioid analgesics or sedatives, on pain, duration of mechanical ventilation, mortality, growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes in newborn infants on mechanical ventilation.
This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Data sources used were Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases, and references from review articles. RCTs or quasi-RCTs comparing opioids to a control, or to other analgesics or sedatives in newborn infants on mechanical ventilation were reviewed.
A total of 13 studies on 1505 infants were included. Infants given opioids showed reduced Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) scores compared to the control group (weighted mean difference (WMD) -1.71, 95% CI -3.18 to -0.24). Heterogeneity was significantly high in all analyses of pain. Meta-analyses of mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation and long-term and short-term neurodevelopmental outcomes showed no statistically significant differences. Very preterm infants given morphine took significantly longer to reach full enteral feeding than those in control groups (WMD 2.10 days, 95% CI 0.35 to 3.85). One study that compared morphine with midazolam showed similar pain scores, but fewer adverse effects with morphine.
There is insufficient evidence to recommend routine use of opioids in mechanically ventilated newborns. Opioids should be used selectively, when indicated by clinical judgment and evaluation of pain indicators. If sedation is required, morphine is safer than midazolam.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
96 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective:To test whether implementing a nursing-driven comfort protocol standardizes morphine use in one neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to examine how non-standard morphine (N-SM) relates to days of ventilation, days of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and length of stay (LOS).Study Design:This was a retrospective/prospective observational study using pharmacy records, medical records, and an outcomes database. Comfort protocol implementation began February 2011 and was applied to preterm, ventilated neonates <1500 grams. Pre- and post-implementation proportions of N-SM days were compared using the binomial test. A percent 'P'-chart spanning 30 quarters was constructed with statistical-process control analysis. Multivariable linear regression adjusting for acuity assessed the relationship between N-SM use and days of ventilation, TPN and LOS.Result:Hundred and thirty-four patients met inclusion criteria, 116 prior to and 18 after implementation. The proportion of patients given N-SM for one or more days decreased from 59 to 35% after protocol implementation (P=0.017). A 9-month period of decreased N-SM days was observed after protocol implementation. Controlling for acuity, each additional day of N-SM use was associated with 0.47 more days of ventilation (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26-0.69, P<0.001) and 0.52 more days of TPN (95% CI: 0.35-0.68, P<0.001). Exposure to N-SM was associated with 17 additional days of hospitalization (P=0.009, 95% CI: 4.5-30).Conclusion:Implementing a nursing-driven comfort protocol significantly reduced N-SM use. N-SM in the NICU is negatively associated with key clinical outcomes. Testing similar protocols in other settings is warranted.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 24 July 2014; doi:10.1038/jp.2014.131.
    Journal of perinatology: official journal of the California Perinatal Association 07/2014; · 1.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo y transversal realizado con profesionales de Enfermería que actúan en el área de Neonatología en los tres hospitales de Alfenas, Minas Gerais. Se objetivó describir las formas de evaluación del dolor del recién nacido utilizados por el personal de enfermería y analizar la práctica de la enfermería como el manejo del dolor del neonato. La recolección de datos fue hecha por medio de un formulario semiestructurado, entre agosto y septiembre de 2008, con 42 profesionales. El análisis fue hecho con el software SPSS, utilizando la estadística descriptiva y la prueba de correlación. Los entrevistados reconocen que el neonato es capaz de sentir dolor y esto se evalúa a través de alteraciones fisiológicas y de comportamiento, no hay utilización de escalas de evaluación del dolor estandarizadas en las instituciones. Para el manejo, realizan intervenciones farmacológicas y no farmacológicas. Hay necesidad de capacitar profesionales contribuyendo para la evaluación y manejo del dolor, para la promoción del cuidado integral al neonato.
    Escola Anna Nery. 08/2013; 17(3):439-445.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The neurobiology of neonatal pain processing, especially in preterm infants, differs significantly from older infants, children, adolescence, and adults. Research suggests that strong painful procedures or repeated mild procedures may permanently modify individual pain processing. Acute injuries at critical developmental periods are risk factors for persistent altered neurodevelopment. The purpose of this narrative review is to present the seminal and current literature describing the unique physiological aspects of neonatal pain processing. Articles describing the structures and physiological processes that influence neonatal pain were identified from electronic databases Medline, PubMed, and CINAHL. The representation of neonatal pain physiology is described in three processes: Local peripheral nervous system processes, referred to as transduction; spinal cord processing, referred to as transmission and modulation; and supraspinal processing and integration or perception of pain. The consequences of undermanaged pain in preterm infants and neonates are discussed. Although the process and pain responses in neonates bear some similarity to processes and pain responses in older infants, children, adolescence, and adults; there are some pain processes and responses that are unique to neonates rendering them at risk for inadequate pain treatment. Moreover, exposure to repeated painful stimuli contributes to adverse long-term physiologic and behavioral sequelae. With the emergence of studies showing that painful experiences are capable of rewiring the adult brain, it is imperative that we treat neonatal pain effectively.
    Surgical Neurology International 01/2014; 5(Suppl 13):S479-89. · 1.18 Impact Factor