Improving pore interconnectivity in polymeric scaffolds for tissue engineering.
ABSTRACT A new scaffold fabrication technique aiming to enhance pore interconnectivity for tissue engineering has been developed. Medical grade poly(lactic acid) was utilized to generate scaffolds by a solvent-evaporating/particulate-leaching technique, using a new dual-porogen system. Water-soluble sodium chloride particles were used to control macro-pore size in the range 106-255 microm, while organic naphthalene was utilized as a porogen to increase pore interconnections. The three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the scaffolds manufactured with and without naphthalene was examined by optical coherence tomography and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the scaffolds were characterized by compression tests. MG63 osteoblast cells were seeded in the scaffolds to study the cell attachment and viability evaluated by confocal microscopy. It was revealed that introducing naphthalene as the second porogen in the solvent-evaporating/particulate-leaching process resulted in improvement of the pore interconnectivity. Cells grew in both scaffolds fabricated with and without naphthalene. They exhibited strong green fluorescence when using a live/dead fluorescent dye kit, indicating that the naphthalene in the scaffold process did not affect cell viability.
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ABSTRACT: In this study, we prepared poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/sodium chloride (NaCl) blends by melt blending with a triple-screw dynamic extruder. The effects of PEG on the thermal property, mechanical property, and morphology of blends were investigated in detail. It was found that the incorporation of PEG and NaCl significantly improved the crystallization rate, elongation at break, surface adhesion, and reduced viscoelasticity of PLA. The blends were further batch-foamed at different temperatures with supercritical carbon dioxide to study the foaming properties. The results of PLA/PEG/NaCl (50 : 10 : 40 wt %) composites after foaming and particle leaching revealed that an interconnected bimodal porous scaffold with the highest porosity of 89% could be achieved. Furthermore, the addition of PEG can significantly reduce the water contact angle so as to enhance the wetting ability of the scaffolds. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 41181.Journal of Applied Polymer Science 12/2014; 131(23). · 1.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as an alternative to conventional methods in the preparation of porous biodegradable polymer and polymer/nanocomposites for tissue engineering has attracted increasing interest in recent years due to the absence of using organic solvents and the ability to incorporate thermosensitive biologicals without loss of bioactivity. Additionally, scCO2 can exert a high level of control over porosity and morphology of scaffolds by tuning the processing parameters. This paper describes the newly achievements on the preparation of porous polymer materials using scCO2 foaming technology with focus on the porous biodegradable materials and its nanocomposites relevant to tissue engineering.Journal of Nanomaterials 01/2012; 2012. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bone defects requiring grafts to promote healing are frequently occurring and costly problems in health care. Chitosan, a biodegradable, naturally occurring polymer, has drawn considerable attention in recent years as scaffolding material in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Chitosan is especially attractive as a bone scaffold material because it supports the attachment and proliferation of osteoblast cells as well as formation of mineralized bone matrix. In this review, we discuss the fundamentals of bone tissue engineering and the unique properties of chitosan as a scaffolding material to treat bone defects for hard tissue regeneration. We present the common methods for fabrication and characterization of chitosan scaffolds, and discuss the influence of material preparation and addition of polymeric or ceramic components or biomolecules on chitosan scaffold properties such as mechanical strength, structural integrity, and functional bone regeneration. Finally, we highlight recent advances in development of chitosan-based scaffolds with enhanced bone regeneration capability.Journal of materials chemistry. B, Materials for biology and medicine. 06/2014; 2(21):3161-3184.