Article

Human body burdens of chemicals used in plastic manufacture.

BGFA-Research Institute of Occupational Medicine, German Social Accident Insurance, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.
Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences (Impact Factor: 6.31). 08/2009; 364(1526):2063-78. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2008.0208
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In the last decades, the availability of sophisticated analytical chemistry techniques has facilitated measuring trace levels of multiple environmental chemicals in human biological matrices (i.e. biomonitoring) with a high degree of accuracy and precision. As biomonitoring data have become readily available, interest in their interpretation has increased. We present an overview on the use of biomonitoring in exposure and risk assessment using phthalates and bisphenol A as examples of chemicals used in the manufacture of plastic goods. We present and review the most relevant research on biomarkers of exposure for phthalates and bisphenol A, including novel and most comprehensive biomonitoring data from Germany and the United States. We discuss several factors relevant for interpreting and understanding biomonitoring data, including selection of both biomarkers of exposure and human matrices, and toxicokinetic information.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Holger Martin Koch, Jun 30, 2015
3 Followers
 · 
155 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: For Europe as a whole, data on internal exposure to environmental chemicals do not yet exist. Characterization of the internal individual chemical environment is expected to enhance understanding of the environmental threats to health. Objectives: We developed and applied a harmonized protocol to collect comparable human biomonitoring data all over Europe. Methods: In 17 European countries, we measured mercury in hair and cotinine, phthalate metabolites and cadmium in urine of 1844 children (5-11 years) and their mothers. Specimens were collected over a 5 month period in 2011-2012. We obtained information on personal characteristics, environment, and life style. We used the resulting database to compare concentrations of exposure biomarkers within Europe, to identify determinants of exposure, and to compare exposure biomarkers with health-based guidelines. Results: Biomarker concentrations showed a wide variability in the European population. However, levels in children and mothers were highly correlated. Most biomarker concentrations were below the health-based guidance values. Conclusions: We have taken the first steps to assess personal chemical exposures in Europe as a whole. Key success factors were the harmonised protocol development, intensive training and capacity building for field work, chemical analysis and communication, as well as stringent quality control programs for chemical and data analysis. Our project demonstrates the feasibility of a European-wide human biomonitoring framework to support the decision-making process of environmental measures to protect public health.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 03/2015; 123(3):255-263. · 7.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) were determined in urine of Belgian overweight and obese (n = 151) and lean (n = 43) individuals. After the first urine collection (0 M), obese patients started a diet program or have undergone bariatric surgery. Hereafter, three additional urine samples from obese patients were collected after 3 (3M), 6 (6M) and 12 (12 M) months. Both compounds were detected in N99% of the samples. BPA had median concentrations of 1.7 and 1.2 ng/mL in obese and lean groups, respectively, while TCS had median concentrations of 1.5 and 0.9 ng/mL in the obese and lean groups, respectively. The obese group had higher urinary concentrations (ng/mL) of BPA (p b 0.5), while no significant differences were found for TCS between the obese and lean groups. No time trends between the different collection moments were observed. The BPA concentrations in the obese group were negatively associated with age, while no gender difference or relationship with body mass index was observed. For TCS, no relationships with gender, BMI, or age were found. The temporal variability of BPA and TCS was assessed with calculation of the intra class correlation coefficient, Spearman rank correlation coefficients, and surrogate category analysis. We observed evidence that single spot urine samples might be predictive of exposure over a longer period of time. Dietary intakes of BPA and TCS did not differ significantly among the time points considered after obese individuals started losing weight (6 and 12 months). Multiple linear regression analyses after adjusting for age and weight loss revealed negative associations between urinary TCS and serumFT4 in the 0M and 3M female obese individuals and positive associations between urinary BPA and serum TSH in the lean group.
    Environment international 01/2015; 76(March 2015):98-105. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2014.12.003 · 5.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Di(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP), a high molecular weight phthalate, is primarily used as a plasticizer in polyvinylchloride and vinyl chloride copolymers for technical applications, as a substitute for other phthalates currently being scrutinized because of endocrine disrupting effects. We determined urinary excretion fractions of three specific DPHP metabolites (mono-2-(propyl-6-hydroxy-heptyl)-phthalate (OH-MPHP), mono-2-(propyl-6-oxoheptyl)-phthalate (oxo-MPHP) and mono-2-(propyl-6-carboxy-hexyl)-phthalate (cx-MPHxP)) after oral dosing of five volunteers with 50 mg labelled DPHP-d4 and subsequent urine sampling for 48 h. These excretion fractions are used to back calculate external intakes from metabolite measurements in spot urine analysis. Following enzymatic hydrolysis to cleave possible conjugates, we determined these urinary metabolites by HPLC-NESI-MS/MS with limits of quantification (LOQ) between 0.3–0.5 μg/l. Maximum urinary concentrations were reached within 3–4 hrs post dose for all three metabolites; elimination half-lives were between 6 to 8 hrs. We identified oxo-MPHP as the major oxidized metabolite in urine representing 13.5 ± 4.0% of the DPHP dose as the mean of the five volunteers within 48 hrs post dose. 10.7 ± 3.6% of the dose was excreted as OH-DPHP and only 0.48 ± 0.13% as cx-MPHxP. Thus, within 48 hrs, 24.7 ± 7.6% of the DPHP dose was excreted as these three specific oxidized DPHP metabolites, with the bulk excreted within 24 hrs post dose (22.9 ± 7.3%). These secondary, oxidized metabolites are suitable and specific biomarkers to determine DPHP exposure. In population studies, however, chromatographic separation of these metabolites from other isomeric di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) metabolites is warranted (preferably by GC-MS) in order to distinguish DPHP from general DIDP exposure. Palatinol®, Hexamoll® and DINCH® are registered trademarks of BASF SE, Germany.
    Toxicology Letters 12/2014; 231(2):282-288. DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.06.035 · 3.36 Impact Factor