Human body burdens of chemicals used in plastic manufacture

BGFA-Research Institute of Occupational Medicine, German Social Accident Insurance, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.
Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences (Impact Factor: 7.06). 08/2009; 364(1526):2063-78. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2008.0208
Source: PubMed


In the last decades, the availability of sophisticated analytical chemistry techniques has facilitated measuring trace levels of multiple environmental chemicals in human biological matrices (i.e. biomonitoring) with a high degree of accuracy and precision. As biomonitoring data have become readily available, interest in their interpretation has increased. We present an overview on the use of biomonitoring in exposure and risk assessment using phthalates and bisphenol A as examples of chemicals used in the manufacture of plastic goods. We present and review the most relevant research on biomarkers of exposure for phthalates and bisphenol A, including novel and most comprehensive biomonitoring data from Germany and the United States. We discuss several factors relevant for interpreting and understanding biomonitoring data, including selection of both biomarkers of exposure and human matrices, and toxicokinetic information.

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    • "For example, after 24 h, 67% of an oral dose of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP 3 ) is excreted as five major metabolites in urine (Koch et al., 2006). Previous studies have therefore typically quantified the urinary concentrations of monoester metabolites of phthalates to characterize recent exposure (Anderson et al., 2001; Koch and Calafat, 2009). In epidemiologic studies of diseases with long latency periods, including cancer, the relevant window of exposure may be many years prior to diagnosis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Phthalate esters are man-made chemicals commonly used as plasticizers and solvents, and humans may be exposed through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. Little is known about predictors of phthalate exposure, particularly in Asian countries. Because phthalates are rapidly metabolized and excreted from the body following exposure, it is important to evaluate whether phthalate metabolites measured at a single point in time can reliably rank exposures to phthalates over a period of time. We examined the concentrations and predictors of phthalate metabolite concentrations among 50 middle-aged women and 50 men from two Shanghai cohorts, enrolled in 1997-2000 and 2002-2006, respectively. We assessed the reproducibility of urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites in three spot samples per participant taken several years apart (mean interval between first and third sample was 7.5years [women] or 2.9years [men]), using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and intra-class correlation coefficients. We detected ten phthalate metabolites in at least 50% of individuals for two or more samples. Participant sex, age, menopausal status, education, income, body mass index, consumption of bottled water, recent intake of medication, and time of day of collection of the urine sample were associated with concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites. The reproducibility of an individual's urinary concentration of phthalate metabolites across several years was low, with all intra-class correlation coefficients and most Spearman rank correlation coefficients ≤0.3. Only mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, had a Spearman rank correlation coefficient ≥0.4 among men, suggesting moderate reproducibility. These findings suggest that a single spot urine sample is not sufficient to rank exposures to phthalates over several years in an adult urban Chinese population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Environment international 08/2015; 84:94-106. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2015.07.003 · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    • "For estimating the daily BPA intake, BPA concentrations were adjusted for daily creatinine excretion. This calculation scenario is based on the approach involving creatinine excretion described by Frederiksen et al. (2013b), Koch and Calafat (2009) and Wittassek et al. (2007). The daily intake of BPA assuming steady-state excretion is calculated using the following equation: "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract For the first time in Europe, both European-wide and country-specific levels of urinary Bisphenol A (BPA) were obtained through a harmonized protocol for participant recruitment, sampling and quality controlled biomarker analysis in the frame of the twin projects COPHES and DEMOCOPHES. 674 child-mother pairs were recruited through schools or population registers from six European member states (Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden). Children (5–12 y) and mothers donated a urine sample. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, life style, dietary habits, and educational level of the parents was provided by mothers. After exclusion of urine samples with creatinine values below 300 mg/L or above 3000 mg/L, 653 children and 639 mothers remained for which BPA was measured. The geometric mean (with 95% confidence intervals) and 90th percentile were calculated for BPA separately in children and in mothers and were named “European reference values”. After adjustment for confounders (age and creatinine), average exposure values in each country were compared with the mean of the “European reference values” by means of a weighted analysis of variance. Overall geometric means of all countries (95% CI) adjusted for urinary creatinine, age and gender were 2.04 (1.87–2.24) µg/L and 1.88 (1.71–2.07) µg/L for children (n=653) and mothers (n=639), respectively. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify significant environmental, geographical, personal or life style related determinants. Consumption of canned food and social class (represented by the highest educational level of the family) were the most important predictors for the urinary levels of BPA in mothers and children. The individual BPA levels in children were significantly correlated with the levels in their mothers (r=0.265, p<0.001), which may suggest a possible common environmental/dietary factor that influences the biomarker level in each pair. Exposure of the general European population was well below the current health-based guidance values and no participant had BPA values higher than the health-based guidance values.
    Environmental Research 08/2015; 141:77-85. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2014.08.008 · 4.37 Impact Factor
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    • "We also calculated Pearson correlations of the log-transformed compounds concentrations. Due to the short biological half-lives of these compounds (Koch and Calafat 2009) we used the average of the creatinine-adjusted concentrations determined in 12 and 32 weeks of pregnancy to provide a better estimation of exposure during pregnancy. Because of the approximate log-normal distribution of urinary concentrations, average creatinine-adjusted concentrations of pollutants were log 2 -transformed. "
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    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates may affect fetal growth; however, previous findings are inconsistent and based on few studies. We assessed whether prenatal exposure to BPA and phthalates were associated with fetal growth in a Spanish birth cohort of 488 mother-child pairs. We measured BPA and eight phthalates [four di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites (DEHPm), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and three low molecular weight phthalate metabolites (LMWPm)] in two spot-urine samples collected during the first and third trimester of pregnancy. We estimated growth curves for femur length (FL), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), biparietal diameter (BPD), and estimated fetal weight (EFW) during pregnancy (weeks 12-20 and 20-34), and for birth weight, birth length, head circumference at birth, and placental weight. Overall, results did not support associations between exposure to BPA or DEHPm during pregnancy and fetal growth parameters. Prenatal MBzP exposure was positively associated with FL at 20-34 weeks resulting in an increase of 3.70% of the average FL (95% CI: 0.75, 6.63%) per doubling of MBzP concentration. MBzP was positively associated with birth weight among boys (48 g; 95% CI: 6, 90) but not in girls (-27 g; 95% CI: -79, 25) (interaction p-value = 0.04). The LMWPm mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) was negatively associated with HC at 12-20 pregnancy weeks (-4.88% of HC average [95% CI: -8.36, -1.36%]). This study, one of the first to combine repeat exposure biomarker measurements and multiple growth measures during pregnancy, finds little evidence of associations of BPA or phthalate exposures with fetal growth. Phthalate metabolites MBzP and MnBP were associated with some fetal growth parameters, but these findings require replication.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 07/2015; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1409190 · 7.98 Impact Factor
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