See It with Feeling: Affective Predictions during Object Perception

Boston CollegeChestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA.
Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences (Impact Factor: 7.06). 06/2009; 364(1521):1325-34. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2008.0312
Source: PubMed


People see with feeling. We 'gaze', 'behold', 'stare', 'gape' and 'glare'. In this paper, we develop the hypothesis that the brain's ability to see in the present incorporates a representation of the affective impact of those visual sensations in the past. This representation makes up part of the brain's prediction of what the visual sensations stand for in the present, including how to act on them in the near future. The affective prediction hypothesis implies that responses signalling an object's salience, relevance or value do not occur as a separate step after the object is identified. Instead, affective responses support vision from the very moment that visual stimulation begins.

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Available from: Lisa Feldman Barrett, Apr 19, 2014
    • "In this embodied predictive coding perspective (Pezzulo, 2013), the most plausible causes of events are inferred based on both exteroceptive (what I see) and interoceptive (how do I feel) cues. An affectively charged event, such as the presence of a predator can be recognized and categorized from both its perceptual characteristics and the fear it instills in us – with a form of perception that is not "pure" but affectively biased (Barrett and Bar, 2009). This in turn induces a circular causality; where fear is both a cause and a consequence of (predator) perception. "
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    ABSTRACT: All organisms must integrate cognition, emotion, and motivation to guide action toward valuable (goal) states, as described by active inference. Within this framework, cognition, emotion, and motivation interact through the (Bayesian) fusion of exteroceptive, proprioceptive, and interoceptive signals, the precision-weighting of prediction errors, and the “affective tuning” of neuronal representations. Crucially, misregulation of these processes may have profound psychopathological consequences.
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences 07/2015; 38. DOI:10.1017/S0140525X14001009 · 20.77 Impact Factor
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    • "Barrett and Bar’s affective prediction hypothesis “implies that responses signaling an object’s salience, relevance or value do not occur as a separate step after the object is identified. Instead, affective responses support vision from the very moment that visual stimulation begins” (Barrett and Bar, 2009, p. 1325). Along with the earliest visual processing, the medial orbital frontal cortex is activated and initiates a train of muscular and hormonal changes throughout the body, “interoceptive sensations” from organs, muscles, and joints associated with prior experience, which are integrated with current exteroceptive sensory information that help to guide response and subsequent actions. "
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    ABSTRACT: In cognitive psychology, studies concerning the face tend to focus on questions about face recognition, theory of mind (ToM) and empathy. Questions about the face, however, also fit into a very different set of issues that are central to ethics. Based especially on the work of Levinas, philosophers have come to see that reference to the face of another person can anchor conceptions of moral responsibility and ethical demand. Levinas points to a certain irreducibility and transcendence implicit in the face of the other. In this paper I argue that the notion of transcendence involved in this kind of analysis can be given a naturalistic interpretation by drawing on recent interactive approaches to social cognition found in developmental psychology, phenomenology, and the study of autism.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 07/2014; 8:495. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00495 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    • "The term “affect” refers to a neuropsychologically basic state that can be described as hedonic (pleasant or unpleasant) with some degree of arousal (from sleepy to activated; for a review, see Lang et al., 1999; Russell and Barrett, 1999). Consistent with philosophers’ musings, research over the past several decades has illustrated that affect is a central feature in emotion (Diener et al., 1999; Russell, 2003; Barrett, 2006a,b), and exerts influence on many psychological phenomena, including vision (for a review, see Barrett and Bar, 2009), attitudes (e.g., Ito and Cacioppo, 2001), personality (e.g., Revelle, 1995; Yik et al., 2002), stereotyping, and prejudice (e.g., Forgas and Fiedler, 1996),verbal communication and negotiation strategies (e.g., Forgas, 1998, 1999), judgment and decision-making (e.g., Forgas, 1995; Greene and Haidt, 2002), predicting the future (e.g., Gilbert and Ebert, 2002), work motivation (e.g., Seo et al., 2004), psychopathology (e.g., Davidson et al., 2002), health (Gallo et al., 2005), and well-being (e.g., Davidson, 2004). Affect provides a common metric (or what neuroeconomists call a “common currency”) for comparing qualitatively different events (Cabanac, 2002), and can serve as the basis for moral judgments of right and wrong (Haidt, 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Affect is a fundamental aspect of the human mind. An increasing number of experiments attempt to examine the influence of affect on other psychological phenomena. To accomplish this research, it is necessary to experimentally modify participants' affective states. In the present experiment, we compared the efficacy of four commonly used affect induction procedures. Participants (38 healthy undergraduate students: 18 males) were randomly assigned to either a pleasant or an unpleasant affect induction group, and then underwent four different affect induction procedures: (1) recall of an affectively salient event accompanied by affectively congruent music, (2) script-driven guided imagery, (3) viewing images while listening to affectively congruent music, and (4) posing affective facial actions, body postures, and vocal expressions. All four affect induction methods were successful in inducing both pleasant and unpleasant affective states. The viewing image with music and recall with music procedures were most effective in enhancing positive affect, whereas the viewing image with music procedure was most effective in enhancing negative affect. Implications for the scientific study of affect are discussed.
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