Simeprevir with pegylated interferon alfa 2a plus ribavirin in treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection (QUEST-1): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
ABSTRACT Although the addition of the HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors boceprevir and telaprevir to pegylated interferon (peginterferon) alfa plus ribavirin has improved sustained virological response (SVR) in treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1, the regimens have a high pill burden and are associated with increased rates and severity of adverse events, such as anaemia and rash. The efficacy and safety of the combination of simeprevir, a one pill, once-daily, oral HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor, plus peginterferon alfa 2a plus ribavirin were assessed in treatment-naive patients with HCV genotype 1 infection.
SourceAvailable from: Nicola Coppola[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most frequent causes of comorbidity and mortality in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population, and liver-related mortality is now the second highest cause of death in HIV-positive patients, so HCV infection should be countered with adequate antiviral therapy. In 2011 began the era of directly acting antivirals (DAAs) and the HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors telaprevir and boceprevir were approved to treat HCV-genotype-1 infection, each one in combination with pegylated interferon alfa (Peg-IFN) + ribavirin (RBV). The addition of the first generation DAAs, strongly improved the efficacy of antiviral therapy in patients with HCV-genotype 1, both for the HCV-monoinfected and HIV/HCV coinfected, and the poor response to Peg-IFN + RBV in HCV/HIV coinfection was enhanced. These treatments showed higher rates of sustained virological response than Peg-IFN + RBV but reduced tolerability and adherence due to the high pill burden and the several pharmacokinetic interactions between HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors and antiretroviral drugs. Then in 2013 a new wave of DAAs arrived, characterized by high efficacy, good tolerability, a low pill burden and shortened treatment duration. The second and third generation DAAs also comprised IFN-free regimens, which in small recent trials on HIV-positive patients have shown comforting preliminary results in terms of efficacy, tolerability and adherence.
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ABSTRACT: Pre-existing low-frequency resistance-associated variants (RAVs) may jeopardize successful sustained virological responses (SVR) to HCV treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). However, the potential impact of low-frequency (∼0.1%) mutations, concatenated mutations (haplotypes), and their association with genotypes (Gts) on the treatment outcome has not yet been elucidated, most probably owing to the difficulty in detecting pre-existing minor haplotypes with sufficient length and accuracy. Herein, we characterize a methodological framework based on Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing (NGS) coupled with bioinformatics of quasispecies reconstruction (QSR) to realize highly accurate variant calling and genotype-haplotype detection. The core-to-NS3 protease coding sequences in 10 HCV monoinfected patients, 5 of whom had a history of blood transfusion, and 11 HCV/HIV coinfected patients with hemophilia, were studied. Simulation experiments showed that, for minor variants constituting more than 1%, our framework achieved a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% and sensitivities of 91.7-100% for genotyping and 80.6% for RAV screening. Genotyping analysis indicated the prevalence of dominant Gt1a infection in coinfected patients (6/11 vs 0/10, p = 0.01). For clinical samples, minor genotype overlapping infection was prevalent in HCV/HIV coinfected hemophiliacs (10/11) and patients who experienced whole-blood transfusion (4/5) but none in patients without exposure to blood (0/5). As for RAV screening, the Q80K/R and S122K/R variants were particularly prevalent among minor RAVs observed, detected in 12/21 and 6/21 cases, respectively. Q80K was detected only in coinfected patients, whereas Q80R was predominantly detected in monoinfected patients (1/11 vs 7/10, p < 0.01). Multivariate interdependence analysis revealed the previously unrecognized prevalence of Gt1b-Q80K, in HCV/HIV coinfected hemophiliacs [Odds ratio = 13.4 (3.48-51.9), p < 0.01]. Our study revealed the distinct characteristics of viral quasispecies between the subgroups specified above and the feasibility of NGS and QSR-based genetic deconvolution of pre-existing minor Gts, RAVs, and their interrelationships.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0119145. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119145 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 4, 5 and 6 are mainly present in Africa, the Middle East and Asia and they have been less extensively studied with respect to epidemiology, natural disease history and therapeutic endpoints. Response rates to a 48-wk combined peginterferon/ribavirin treatment range to 40%-69% for HCV 4, 55%-60% for HCV 5 and 60%-90% for HCV 6. Response-guided schedules are recommended to optimize the outcomes of peginterferon/ribavirin treatment in HCV 4 and, in form of preliminary data, for HCV 6, but no data are yet available to support such an individualization of therapy for HCV 5. Recently, the direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) with pan-genotypic activities simeprevir, sofosbuvir and daclatasvir have been recommended in triple regimens with peginterferon/ribavirin for the treatment of HCV genotypes 4 to 6 infections. In the future, DAA-based interferon-free therapies are awaited to drastically improve treatment outcomes in HCV. However, efforts to improve treatment outcomes with peginterferon/ribavirin should continue, as the HCV 4-6 infected population is mainly based in resource-limited settings with restricted access to the costly DAAs.03/2015; 3(3):210-20. DOI:10.12998/wjcc.v3.i3.210