The Anti-Aging and Tumor Suppressor Protein Klotho Enhances Differentiation of a Human Oligodendrocytic Hybrid Cell Line

Journal of Molecular Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 2.76). 06/2014; 55(1). DOI: 10.1007/s12031-014-0336-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Klotho functions as an aging suppressor, which, in mice, extends lifespan when overexpressed and accelerates development of aging-like phenotypes when disrupted. Klotho is mainly expressed in brain and kidney and is secreted into the serum and CSF. We have previously shown that Klotho is reduced in brains of old monkeys, rats, and mice. We further reported the ability of Klotho to enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. Here, we examined the signaling pathways induced by Klotho in MO3.13, a human oligodendrocytic hybrid cell line. We show that exogenous Klotho affects the ERK and Akt signaling pathways, decreases the proliferative abilities and enhances differentiation of MO3.13 cells. Furthermore, microarray analysis of Klotho-treated MO3.13 cells reveals a massive change in gene expression with 80 % of the differentially expressed genes being downregulated. Using gene set enrichment analysis, we predicted potential transcription factors involved in regulating Klotho-treated MO3.13 cells and found that these cells are highly enriched in the gene sets, that are similarly observed in cancer, cardiovascular disease, stress, aging, and hormone-related chemical and genetic perturbations. Since Klotho is downregulated in all brain tumors tested to date, enhancing Klotho has therapeutic potential for treating brain and other malignancies.

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Available from: Carmela R Abraham, Jun 11, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Membrane protein shedding is a critical step in many normal and pathological processes. The anti-aging protein Klotho (KL), mainly expressed in kidney and brain, is secreted into the serum and CSF, respectively. KL is proteolytically released, or shed, from the cell surface by ADAM10 and ADAM17, which are the α-secretases that also cleave the amyloid precursor protein and other proteins. The transmembrane KL is a co-receptor with the FGF receptor for FGF23, while the shed form acts as a circulating hormone. However, the precise cleavage sites in KL are unknown. KL contains two major cleavage sites: one close to the juxtamembrane region and another between the KL1 and KL2 domains. We identified the cleavage site involved in KL release by mutating potential sheddase(s) recognition sequences and examining the production of the KL extracellular fragments in transfected COS-7 cells. Deletion of amino acids T958 and L959 results in a 50-60% reduction in KL shedding, and an additional P954E mutation results in further reduction of KL shedding by 70-80%. Deletion of amino acids 954-962 resulted in a 94% reduction in KL shedding. This mutant also had moderately decreased cell surface expression, yet had overall similar subcellular localization as WT KL as demonstrated by immunofluorescence. Cleavage-resistant mutants could function as a FGFR co-receptor for FGF23, but lost activity as a soluble form of KL in proliferation and transcriptional reporter assays. Cleavage between the KL1 and KL2 domains is dependent on juxtamembrane cleavage. Our results shed light into mechanisms underlying KL release from the cell membrane and provide a target for potential pharmacologic interventions aiming at regulating KL secretion.
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