Proniosomal transdermal therapeutic system of losartan potassium: Development and pharmacokinetic evaluation
Department of Pharmaceutics, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), New Delhi, India. Journal of Drug Targeting
(Impact Factor: 2.74).
08/2009; 17(6):442-9. DOI: 10.1080/10611860902963039
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the feasibility of proniosomes as transdermal drug delivery system for losartan potassium. Different preparations of proniosomes were fabricated using different nonionic surfactants, such as Span 20, Span 40, Span 60, Span 80, Tween 20, Tween 40, and Tween 80. Different formulae were prepared and coded as PNG-1 (proniosomal gel-1) to PNG-7. The best in vitro skin permeation profile was obtained with proniosomal formulation PNG-2 in 24 h. The permeability parameters such as flux, permeability coefficient, and enhancement ratio were significant for PNG-2 compared with other formulations (P < 0.05). This optimized PNG-2 was fabricated in the form of transdermal patch using HPMC gel as a suitable base. Proniosomal transdermal therapeutic system (PNP-H) was found to be the optimized one as it gave better release of drug and better permeation in a steady-state manner over a desired period of time, that is, 24 h through rat skin. In vivo pharmacokinetic study of PNP-H showed a significant increase in bioavailability (1.93 times) compared with oral formulation of losartan potassium. The formulation appeared to be stable when stored at room temperature (30 +/- 2 degrees C) and at refrigeration temperature (4 +/- 2 degrees C) for 45 days.
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- "This causes daily dosing schedule and patient inconvenience. The lowb ioavailability (33% after oral dosing) is primarily due to incomplete absorption and partly due to pre-systemic metabolism (Thakur et al. 2009). Due to its lowbioavailability after oral administration, and the inconveniences related to parenteral administration, the development of transdermal drug delivery device is reasonable. "
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ABSTRACT: Monolithic transdermal therapeutic systems (TTS) were developed for sustained antihypertensive effect of losartan potassium using the polymers Eudragit E 100 and polyvinyl pyrrolidone VA 64. The developed formulations (polymeric films) were evaluated for physical characteristics, ex vivo (histopathology) and in vivo (pharmacokinetic studies). Pharmacokinetic parameters, such as C(max), t(max), and AUC were estimated. The transdermal formulation in the present study was found to enhance the relative bioavailability of losartan potassium by 2.2 times with reference to an oral delivery. The increased bioavailability might be due to elimination of hepatic first pass metabolism. Thus, the transdermal formulation F3E with polymeric composition of Eudragit E 100 and polyvinyl pyrrolidone VA 64 (5:3) was found to provide prolonged steady state concentrations of losartan potassium with minimal fluctuations and improved bioavailability.
Pharmazie 09/2010; 65(9):679-82. DOI:10.1691/ph.2010.0083 · 1.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NSVs) were proposed for the pulmonary delivery of glucocorticoids such as beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases, e.g. asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and various type of pulmonary fibrosis. The thin layer evaporation method followed by sonication was used to prepare small non-ionic surfactant vesicles containing beclomethasone dipropionate. Light scattering experiments showed that beclomethasone dipropionate-loaded non-ionic surfactant vesicles were larger than unloaded ones and showed a significant (P<0.001) decrease of the zeta potential. The morphological analysis, by freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy, showed the maintenance of a vesicular structure in the presence of the drug. The colloidal and storage stability were evaluated by Turbiscan Lab Expert, which evidenced the good stability of BDP-loaded non-ionic surfactant vesicles, thus showing no significant variations of mean size and no colloidal phase segregation. Primary human lung fibroblast (HLF) cells were used for in vitro investigation of vesicle tolerability, carrier-cell interaction, intracellular drug uptake and drug-loaded vesicle anti-inflammatory activity. The investigated NSVs did not show a significant cytotoxic activity at all incubation times for concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1 μM. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed vesicular carrier localization at the level of the cytoplasm compartment, where the glucocorticoid receptor (target site) is localized. BDP-loaded non-ionic surfactant vesicles elicited a significant improvement of the HLF intracellular uptake of the drug with respect to the free drug solution, drug/surfactant mixtures and empty vesicles used as references. The treatment of HLF cells with BDP-loaded non-ionic surfactant vesicles determined a noticeable increase of the drug anti-inflammatory activity by reducing the secretion of both constitutive and interleukin-1β-stimulated nerve growth factor (as inflammatory index) of 68% and 85%, respectively. Obtained data indicate that the investigated NSVs represent a promising tool as a pulmonary drug delivery system.
Journal of Controlled Release 10/2010; 147(1):127-35. DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2010.06.022 · 7.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study, curcumin loaded chitin nanogels (CCNGs) were developed using biocompatible and biodegradable chitin with an anticancer curcumin drug. Chitin, as well as curcumin, is insoluble in water. However, the developed CCNGs form a very good and stable dispersion in water. The CCNGs were analyzed by DLS, SEM and FTIR and showed spherical particles in a size range of 70-80 nm. The CCNGs showed higher release at acidic pH compared to neutral pH. The cytotoxicity of the nanogels were analyzed on human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF) and A375 (human melanoma) cell lines and the results show that CCNGs have specific toxicity on melanoma in a concentration range of 0.1-1.0 mg mL(-1), but less toxicity towards HDF cells. The confocal analysis confirmed the uptake of CCNGs by A375. The apoptotic effect of CCNGs was analyzed by a flow-cytometric assay and the results indicate that CCNGs at the higher concentration of the cytotoxic range showed comparable apoptosis as the control curcumin, in which there was negligible apoptosis induced by the control chitin nanogels. The CCNGs showed a 4-fold increase in steady state transdermal flux of curcumin as compared to that of control curcumin solution. The histopathology studies of the porcine skin samples treated with the prepared materials showed loosening of the horny layer of the epidermis, facilitating penetration with no observed signs of inflammation. These results suggest that the formulated CCNGs offer specific advantage for the treatment of melanoma, the most common and serious type of skin cancer, by effective transdermal penetration.
Nanoscale 11/2011; 4(1):239-50. DOI:10.1039/c1nr11271f · 7.39 Impact Factor
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