Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses of the 12-spanner drug: H+ antiporter family 1 (DHA1) in pathogenic Candida species: Evolution of MDR1 and FLU1 genes
IBB – Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Biological and Chemical Engineering, Department of Bioengineering Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049–001 Lisboa, Portugal Genomics
(Impact Factor: 2.28).
07/2014; 104(1). DOI: 10.1016/j.ygeno.2014.05.005
Candida albicans and other pathogenic Candida species can develop resistance to clinical fungicides through active drug export mediated by multidrug efflux pumps, in particular by members of the drug:H+ antiporter family 1 (DHA1). The DHA1 proteins encoded in the genomes of 31 hemiascomycetous strains from 25 species were identified and homology relationships between these proteins and the functionally characterized DHA1 in the model yeast S. cerevisiae were established. Gene neighbourhood analysis allowed the reconstruction of sixteen DHA1 lineages conserved during the CTG complex species evolution. The evolutionary history of C. albicans MDR1 and FLU1 genes and C. dubliniensis, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis MDR1 genes was detailed. Candida genomes show an abundant number of MDR1 and FLU1 homologs but the chromosome environment where MDR1 homologs reside was poorly conserved during evolution. Gene duplication and loss are major mechanisms underlying the evolution of the DHA1 genes in Candida species.
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