Cardiovascular risk factors in restless legs syndrome.
ABSTRACT We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study to assess prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without restless legs syndrome (RLS). Adults attending their annual checkup completed the International RLS Study Group questionnaire and underwent an interview by a neurologist. Data from the annual checkup were compared between subjects with and without RLS. The prevalence of RLS was 6.7% (95% CI 5.45-7.95) among 1,537 responders. RLS subjects' blood tests showed significantly higher fasting blood glucose level (P = 0.029), higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.029) and reduced renal function (P = 0.013), and increased prevalence of low hematocrit (P = 0.008). RLS subjects weighed more (P = 0.029), had a higher BMI (P = 0.033), larger hip circumference (P = 0.033), and were less fit (P = 0.010). To control for interactions among statistical predictors, we also employed multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, smoking, BMI, hemoglobin, glucose, HDL/LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and creatinine. We found that female gender (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.11-4.17), smoking (OR 1.82; 95% CI, 1.10-3.00), and HDL/LDL cholesterol (OR 0.18; 95% CI 0.034-0.90) were significantly associated with RLS compared with subjects without RLS. RLS was associated with cardiovascular risk factors.
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ABSTRACT: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological movement disorder characterized by sensory symptoms and motor disturbances. While the underlying cause remains unknown, it is suggested that 20–25% of people with RLS are affected seriously enough to require pharmacological treatment. Dopamine agonists (DAs) are the most common treatment and act by increasing the low levels of dopamine to which RLS is often attributed. A growing literature highlights the debilitating and distressing nature of this condition from the patient’s perspective. While sleep problems are most commonly reported, the impact of RLS on quality of life (QOL) is wide ranging, affecting relationships with partners, sex life, family life, social life, leisure activities, friendships, everyday activities, concentration, travel, career/work, sleep, and health. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials in which DAs have been evaluated in terms of RLS-specific QOL, i.e. their impact on the QOL of people with RLS, and critically reviewed the development history and measurement properties of RLS-specific QOL instruments. A systematic search using terms synonymous with RLS, DAs and QOL was conducted using Scopus software, which includes MEDLINE, Psyc-INFO, EMBASE, and CINAHL. Our search covered publications from 2000 (prior to which RLS-specific QOL measures did not exist) to August 2009. Trials were included in our review if they evaluated DAs for the treatment of adults with RLS and reported evaluation using an RLS-specific QOL measure. We also ran citation searches to identify papers reporting the development history and measurement properties of the identified RLS-specific QOL instruments. Three measures of RLS-specific QOL have been developed in recent years and are reviewed here: the Restless Legs Syndrome Quality of Life (RLSQOL) questionnaire, the Restless Legs Syndrome Quality of Life Instrument (RLS-QLI), and the Quality of Life Restless Legs Syndrome (QOL-RLS) measure. Critical review indicates that each has limitations (particularly in terms of published developmental history and content validity). Eleven trials of DAs were identified that included assessment of RLS-specific QOL (nine using the RLSQOL and two using the QOL-RLS). In all studies, significant improvements in RLS-specific QOL were observed, although these were mostly short term (12 weeks) and large placebo effects were also noted. In people with RLS, the use of DAs has been shown to improve RLS-specific QOL. Longer-term, large-scale studies may be needed to confirm these findings and demonstrate statistically significant improvements in RLS-specific QOL at lower doses. Further development of the RLS-specific QOL measures is needed to ensure that the full impact of RLS (and the full benefit of new treatments) on aspects of life identified as important to individuals is captured in future studies.The patient 01/2010; 3(3):185-203. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Because previous cross-sectional studies suggest an association between metabolic disorders and restless legs syndrome (RLS), we prospectively evaluated whether obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension were associated with increased risk of RLS. Our study consisted of 42,728 female participants from the Nurses' Health Study II and 12,812 male participants from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, free of RLS at baseline (2002 for men and 2005 for women), and free of diabetes and arthritis through follow-up (2002-2008 for men and 2005-2009 for women). RLS symptoms were assessed using the International RLS Study Group's standardized questionnaire. We considered RLS symptoms a "case" if the symptoms occurred ≥5 times/month and met International RLS Study Group criteria. We found that obesity was associated with an increased risk RLS among both men and women (P difference for sex >0.5). The pooled multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for RLS was 1.57 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33-1.85; P trend <0.0001) for body mass index >30 versus ≤23 kg/m(2) and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.29-1.89; P trend = 0.0001) comparing two extreme waist circumference quintiles, adjusting for age, ethnicity, smoking, physical activity, use of antidepressant, and other covariates. A similar significant association was found for high cholesterol; the pooled adjusted OR for total serum cholesterol >240 versus <159 mg/dL was 1.33 (95% CI: 1.11-1.60; P trend = 0.002). There was no significant association between hypertension and RLS risk (adjusted OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.79-1.02). In this large, prospective study, we found that obesity and high cholesterol, but not high blood pressure, were significantly associated with an increased risk of developing RLS. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.Movement Disorders 04/2014; 29(8). · 5.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Restless legs syndrome (RLS)/Willis-Ekbom disease (WED) is common during pregnancy, affecting approximately one in five pregnant women in Western countries. Many report moderate or severe symptoms and negative impact on sleep. There is very little information in the medical literature for practitioners on the management of this condition during pregnancy. Accordingly, a task force was chosen by the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG) to develop guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of RLS/WED during pregnancy and lactation. A committee of nine experts in RLS/WED and/or obstetrics developed a set of 12 consensus questions, conducted a literature search, and extensively discussed potential guidelines. Recommendations were approved by the IRLSSG executive committee, reviewed by IRLSSG membership, and approved by the WED Foundation Medical Advisory Board. These guidelines address diagnosis, differential diagnosis, clinical course, and severity assessment of RLS/WED during pregnancy and lactation. Nonpharmacologic approaches, including reassurance, exercise and avoidance of exacerbating factors, are outlined. A rationale for iron supplementation is presented. Medications for RLS/WED are risk/benefit rated for use during pregnancy and lactation. A few are rated "may be considered" when RLS/WED is refractory to more conservative approaches. An algorithm summarizes the recommendations. These guidelines are intended to improve clinical practice and promote further research. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Sleep Medicine Reviews 11/2014; · 9.14 Impact Factor