Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Restless Legs Syndrome
ABSTRACT We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study to assess prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without restless legs syndrome (RLS). Adults attending their annual checkup completed the International RLS Study Group questionnaire and underwent an interview by a neurologist. Data from the annual checkup were compared between subjects with and without RLS. The prevalence of RLS was 6.7% (95% CI 5.45-7.95) among 1,537 responders. RLS subjects' blood tests showed significantly higher fasting blood glucose level (P = 0.029), higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.029) and reduced renal function (P = 0.013), and increased prevalence of low hematocrit (P = 0.008). RLS subjects weighed more (P = 0.029), had a higher BMI (P = 0.033), larger hip circumference (P = 0.033), and were less fit (P = 0.010). To control for interactions among statistical predictors, we also employed multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, smoking, BMI, hemoglobin, glucose, HDL/LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and creatinine. We found that female gender (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.11-4.17), smoking (OR 1.82; 95% CI, 1.10-3.00), and HDL/LDL cholesterol (OR 0.18; 95% CI 0.034-0.90) were significantly associated with RLS compared with subjects without RLS. RLS was associated with cardiovascular risk factors.
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to explore the association between restless legs syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome in an epidemiological cohort. We included 3365 adults, of whom 1602 were female (age 52.5 ± 7.5 years), who had participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (2005-2006). The diagnosis of restless legs syndrome was based on the criteria proposed by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group, and irritable bowel syndrome was defined according to the Rome II criteria. The prevalence of each condition was determined and their association was tested by logistic regression analysis. Age, sex, haemoglobin concentration, renal insufficiency, use of medications and depressive mood were all adjusted for. The prevalence of restless legs syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome was 4.5 and 11.1%, respectively. Irritable bowel syndrome was more prevalent in the group with restless legs syndrome (24.0 versus 10.5%, P < 0.001). Subjects with restless legs syndrome were older (54.2 ± 8.4 versus 52.4 ± 7.4, P = 0.006) and more depressive (26.7 versus 12.5%, P < 0.001), and were predominantly female (57.3 versus 47.2%, P = 0.015), had more frequent insomnia symptoms (44.0 versus 28.2%, P < 0.001), had lower haemoglobin concentration (13.7 ± 1.5 versus 14.1 ± 1.6 g dL(-1) P = 0.004) and higher highly sensitive C-reactive protein (1.8 ± 5.1 versus 1.4 ± 2.9 mg dL(-1) , P = 0.08). The adjusted odds ratio of restless legs syndrome in relation to irritable bowel syndrome was 2.59 (1.74-3.85, P < 0.001). Irritable bowel syndrome appeared to be associated with restless legs syndrome independently from other major risk factors for restless legs syndrome. Searching for the mechanisms underlying this association is indicated.Journal of Sleep Research 03/2012; 21(5):569-576. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2869.2012.01011.x · 2.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) affects almost one out of three end-stage renal disease patients. This review assesses the current treatment options of uremic RLS and its potential benefits of those treatments on quality of life parameters, cardiovascular mortality and survival. A systematic review was conducted searching PubMed and Scopus by using the Cochrane and PRISMA guidelines. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria in which the international RLS study group criteria were used as the primary diagnostic tool. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches were found to reduce the severity of uremic RLS symptoms. Only four studies had reported changes on aspects related to quality of life while those changes were also associated with health benefits that resulted in reduced cardiovascular risk. The severity of uremic RLS symptoms can be ameliorated by using dopamine agonists and gabapentin, intravenous iron, exercise or supplementation with vitamins C and E, while some of those treatment benefits can be attenuated rapidly. There is a lack of strong evidence regarding the effects of the pharmacological approaches on quality of life and cardiovascular survival and mortality. In contrast exercise has been proven beneficial in both reducing the RLS symptoms’ severity score and improving the quality of life.Sleep Medicine Reviews 08/2014; 21. DOI:10.1016/j.smrv.2014.07.006 · 9.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease (RLS/WED) is a sensorimotor disorder that causes patients to experience overwhelming and distressing sensations in the legs compelling the patient to move their legs to provide relief. The purpose of this study was to determine if biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid can distinguish RLS/WED patients from neurological controls. We obtained CSF samples by lumbar puncture from 5 early-onset RLS/WED patients and 5 controls. We performed 2-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Proteins that were significantly altered were identified by Student's t-test. Protein spots that were differentially expressed (p ≤ 0.05, Av. Ratio ≥ 2.0) between RLS/WED and control CSF samples were identified using MALDI-TOF-MS. Statistical analyses of the validation immunoblot assays were performed using Student's t-test. In this discovery study we identified 6 candidate CSF protein markers for early-onset RLS/WED. Four proteins (Cystatin C, Lipocalin-type Prostaglandin D2 Synthase, Vitamin D binding Protein, and β-Hemoglobin) were increased and 2 proteins (Apolipoprotein A1 and α-1-acid Glycoprotein) were decreased in RLS/WED patients. Our results reveal a protein profile in the RLS/WED CSF that is consistent with clinical findings of disruptive sleep, cardiovascular dysfunction and painful symptoms. Moreover, protein profiles are consistent with neuropathological findings of activation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathways and alterations in dopaminergic systems. These data indicate the CSF of RLS/WED patients may provide information relevant to biological basis for RLS/WED, treatment strategies and potential new treatment targets.06/2013; 10(1):20. DOI:10.1186/2045-8118-10-20