Mutations in the ANKRD1 gene encoding CARP are responsible for human dilated cardiomyopathy
ABSTRACT Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is familial in approximately 30% of cases, and mutations have been identified in several genes. However, in a majority of familial cases, the responsible genes are still to be discovered. The ANKRD1 gene is over-expressed in heart failure in human and animal models. The encoded protein CARP interacts with partners such as myopalladin or titin, previously shown to be involved in DCM. We hypothesized that mutations in ANKRD1 could be responsible for DCM.
We sequenced the coding region of ANKRD1 from 231 independent DCM cases. We identified five missense mutations (three sporadic and two familial) absent from 400 controls and affecting highly conserved residues. Expression of the mutant CARP proteins after transfection in rat neonate cardiomyocytes indicated that most of them led to both significantly less repressor activity measured in a reporter gene assay and greater phenylephrin-induced hypertrophy, suggesting altered function of CARP mutant proteins.
On the basis of genetic and functional analysis of CARP mutations, we have identified ANKRD1 as a new gene associated with DCM, accounting for approximately 2% of cases.
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ABSTRACT: The expression of ankyrin repeat domain protein 1 (Ankrd1), a transcriptional cofactor and sarcomeric component, is strongly elevated by wounding and tissue injury. We developed a conditional Ankrd1(fl/fl) mouse, performed global deletion with Sox2-cre, and assessed the role of this protein in cutaneous wound healing. Although global deletion of Ankrd1 did not affect mouse viability or development, Ankrd1(-/-) mice had at least two significant wound-healing phenotypes: extensive necrosis of ischemic skin flaps, which was reversed by adenoviral expression of ANKRD1, and delayed excisional wound closure, which was characterized by decreased contraction and reduced granulation tissue thickness. Skin fibroblasts isolated from Ankrd1(-/-) mice did not spread or migrate on collagen- or fibronectin-coated surfaces as efficiently as fibroblasts isolated from Ankrd1(fl/fl) mice. More important, Ankrd1(-/-) fibroblasts failed to contract three-dimensional floating collagen gels. Reconstitution of ANKRD1 by adenoviral infection stimulated both collagen gel contraction and actin fiber organization. These in vitro data were consistent with in vivo wound closure studies, and suggest that ANKRD1 is important for the proper interaction of fibroblasts with a compliant collagenous matrix both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.American Journal Of Pathology 11/2014; 185(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2014.09.018 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Muscle ankyrin-repeat proteins (MARPs) have been shown to serve diverse functions within cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. Apart from their interactions with sarcomeric proteins like titin or myopalladin that locate them along myofilaments, MARPs are able to shuttle to the nucleus where they act as modulators for a variety of transcription factors. The deregulation of MARPs in many cardiac and skeletal myopathies contributes to their use as biomarkers for these diseases. Many of their functions are attributed to their domain composition. MARPs consist of an N-terminal coiled-coil domain responsible for their dimerization. The C-terminus contains a series of ankyrin repeats, whose best-characterized function is to bind to the N2A region of the giant sarcomeric protein titin. Here we investigate the nature of their dimerization and their interaction with titin more closely. We demonstrate that the coiled-coil domain in all MARPs enables their homo- and hetero-dimerization in antiparallel fashion. Protein complementation experiments indicate further antiparallel binding of the ankyrin repeats to titin's N2A region. Binding of MARP to titin also affects its PKA mediated phosphorylation. We demonstrate further that MARPs themselves are phosphorylated by PKA and PKC, potentially altering their structure or function. These studies elucidate structural relationships within the stretch-responsive MARP/titin complex in cross-striated muscle cells, and may relate to disease relevant posttranslational modifications of MARPs and titin that alter muscle compliance. Anat Rec, 297:1615–1629, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 09/2014; 297(9). DOI:10.1002/ar.22968 · 1.34 Impact Factor