Non-elective caesarean delivery due to ineffective uterine contractility or due to obstructed labour in relation to maternal body mass index
ABSTRACT To assess whether non-elective caesarean section due to obstructed labour and/or ineffective uterine contractility was associated with maternal body mass index (BMI).
The prospective dataset from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry consisted of 233,887 nulliparous women with a spontaneous onset of labour categorized in six classes of pre-pregnancy BMI, who delivered in Sweden between, January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2005. The mode of delivery was classified as either vaginal or by caesarean section. The caesarean section was classified as either elective or non-elective. Adjusted risks for non-elective caesarean section due to ineffective uterine contractility, or obstructed labour or fetal distress were determined using Mantel-Haenszel technique.
The risk of a non-elective caesarean section due to obstructed labour was not significantly associated with maternal BMI. However, ineffective uterine contractility was significantly associated with maternal BMI and the risk of non-elective caesarean delivery due to labour arrest disorders increased with increasing BMI, reaching a 4-fold increased risk among the morbidly obese women. The risk of non-elective caesarean section due to fetal distress also increased significantly with increasing maternal BMI.
It appears that ineffective labour could be a factor leading to the increased risk of non-elective caesarean section among obese and morbidly obese women. These findings challenge obstetricians to learn more about how to manage oxytocin infusions during labour in relation to maternal BMI.
- SourceAvailable from: Darine El-Chaar[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: Nationally, rates of obesity continue to rise, resulting in increased health concerns for women of reproductive age. Identifying the impact of maternal obesity on obstetrical outcomes is important to enhance patient care. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 6674 women who delivered a singleton infant at ≥ 20 weeks' gestation between December 1, 2007, and March 31, 2010, at The Ottawa Hospital. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was used to classify women into normal, overweight, and obese (class I/II/III) categories according to WHO classifications. Obstetrical outcomes among obese women were compared with those of women with normal BMI. Multivariable regression models were used to determine adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Compared with women with normal BMI, obese women had significantly higher rates of preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, and gestational diabetes, and these rates increased with increasing BMI (trend-test P < 0.001). There was a significant increase in rates of induction of labour in the obesity categories, from 25.3% in women with normal BMI to 42.9% in women with class III morbid obesity (aOR 1.67; 95% CI 1.43 to 1.93). Rates of primary Caesarean section rose with increasing BMI and were highest in women with class III morbid obesity (36.2% vs. 22.1% in women with normal BMI) (aOR 1.46; 95% CI 1.23 to 1.73). Conclusion: Increasing BMI is associated with increasing rates of preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, and gestational diabetes. There is a significant increase in rates of induction of labour with increasing obesity class, and a significantly increased Caesarean section rate with higher BMI. Obstetrical care providers should counsel obese patients about the risks they face and the importance of weight loss before pregnancy.Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada: JOGC = Journal d'obstetrique et gynecologie du Canada: JOGC 03/2013; 35(3):224-33.
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ABSTRACT: in midwife-led care models of maternity care, midwives are responsible for intrapartum referrals to the obstetrician or obstetric unit, in order to give their clients access to secondary obstetric care. This study explores the influence of risk perception, policy on routine labour management, and other midwife related factors on intrapartum referral decisions of Dutch midwives. a questionnaire was used, in which a referral decision was asked in 14 early labour scenarios (Discrete Choice Experiment or DCE). The scenarios varied in woman characteristics (BMI, gestational age, the preferred birth location, adequate support by a partner, language problems and coping) and in clinical labour characteristics (cervical dilatation, estimated head-to-cervix pressure, and descent of the head). primary care midwives in the Netherlands. a systematic random selection of 243 practicing primary care midwives. The response rate was 48 per cent (117/243). the Impact Factor of the characteristics in the DCE was calculated using a conjoint analysis. The number of intrapartum referrals to secondary obstetric care in the 14 scenarios of the DCE was calculated as the individual referral score. Risk perception was assessed by respondents׳ estimates of the probability of eight birth outcomes. The associations between midwives׳ policy on management of physiological labour, personal characteristics, workload in the practice, number of midwives in the practice, and referral score were explored. the estimated head-to-cervix pressure and descent of the head had the largest impact on referral decisions in the DCE. The median referral score was five (range 0-14). Estimates of probability on birth outcomes were predominantly overestimating actual risks. Factors significantly associated with a high referral score were: a low estimated probability of a spontaneous vaginal birth (p=0.007), adhering to the active management policy Proactive Support of Labour (PSOL) (p=0.047), and a practice situated in a rural area or small city (p=0.016). there is considerable variation in referral decisions among midwives that cannot be explained by woman characteristics or clinical factors in early labour. A realistic perception of the possibility of a spontaneous vaginal birth and adhering to expectant management can contribute to the prevention of unwarranted medicalisation of physiological childbirth. awareness of variation in referrals and the associated midwife-related factors can stimulate midwives to reflect on their referral behavior. To diminish unwarranted variation, high quality research on the optimal management of a physiological first stage of labour should be performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Midwifery 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.midw.2015.01.005 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obesity is a major health problem worldwide. The prevalence of obesity is increasing in both developed and developing countries. In the UK, for example, 60% of adults are overweight and 25% are obese. Obesity is associated with many pathological complications including respiratory, cardiovascular and endocrine, but it also affects fertility and is associated with many reproductive complications. This has led us and others to investigate links between women with high BMI, pregnancy outcome and uterine function. These studies in turn have led investigators to ask how obesity can have such an impact on reproduction and, as part of this, to consider the role of the adipokines released from adipose tissue. Our focus in this short review is on adipokines and myometrial activity, and for completeness we overview their effects on other smooth muscles. To date four adipokines (leptin, visfatin, apelin and ghrelin) have been investigated and all affect myometrial contractility, but some more potently than others. We consider the possible mechanisms involved in how adipokines may modify uterine contractility, and discuss the potential impact on labour and delivery. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Life Sciences 02/2015; 125. DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2015.02.001 · 2.30 Impact Factor